4 - Lexicon(1)(2)

4 Lexicon(1(2) - Click to edit Master subtitle style What is the definition of a word Do spaces define words • How many words in – The cover of

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Unformatted text preview: Click to edit Master subtitle style What is the definition of a word? Do spaces define words? • How many words in: – The cover of an early issue of the periodical English Today poses a question of considerable theoretical and practical significance. • Hyphenation? – eat-as-much-as-you-like – Highs-Lows • Multi-word expressions? – Value for Money • Compounds? – FLYAWAY – ClTYSPRINT • Abbreviations? – BA – Kcal Do spaces define words? • Multiple meanings? – Bear (animal) – Bear (carry) – Lock (on a door) – Lock (on a canal) • Multiple spellings? – Flowerpot – Flower pot – Flower-pot • Idioms – Get my act together – Kick the bucket Click to edit Master subtitle style The Lexicon The Lexicon • Lexis (Greek ‘word’) • Lexicology, Lexicologist – Studies words, etc. • Lexicography, Lexicographer – Writes dictionaries • Lexeme – The things in the lexicon What is a lexeme? • Fibrillating vs. fibrillated vs. fibrillates • It was raining cats and dogs • Come in • These are all lexemes: – Fibrillate – Elephant – Jog – Cholesterol – Happiness – Put up with – Face the music – Etc. Click to edit Master subtitle style Are abbreviations lexemes? Abbreviations • Discussed in New York Evening Tatler (1839) – 'the initial language ... a species of spoken shorthand, which is getting into very general use among loafers and gentlemen of the fancy, besides Editors, to whom it saves much trouble in writing ... ' – OK ('all correct') – PDQ ('pretty damn quick') – GT('gone to Texas') – LL ('liver loafers') Are abbreviations useful? • Radar – ra dio d etection a nd r anging • DOS, RAM, ROM, WYSIWYG • BBC, NATO, USA, AIDS, UNESCO • UNICEF • AAA (military) • SAM (military) • GI (military) • DDT (chemistry) • TNT (chemistry) Types of abbreviations • Initialisms – BBC, OJ, MP, EEC, USA, and e.g. [exempli gratia] – PhD, GHQ, TV • Acronyms – Initialisms which are pronounced as single words • NATO, Iaser, UNESCO, SALT (talks). • Clipping – A part of a word which serves for the whole • [1st part] ad and phone, demo, exam, pub • [last part] bus, plane • [middle part] fridge, flu • maths (UK), gents, and specs • fries (from French fried potatoes) • Betty (from Elizabeth) • Bill (from William). • Blends – A word which is made out of the shortened forms of two other words • brunch (breakfast + lunch), • heliport (helicopter + airport), • smog (smoke + fog), • Eurovision (European + television • Bionic • Awkward cases – Abbreviations which do not fall clearly into the above four categories – UFO – CDROM • Facetious forms – TGIF Thank God It's Friday – CMG Call Me God (properly, 'Companion of St Michael and St George') – KCMG Kindly Call Me God (properly, 'Knight Commander of St Michael and St George') – GCMG God Calls Me God (properly, 'Grand Cross of St Michael and St George') Click to edit Master subtitle style Are names lexemes? Are proper names lexical items?Are proper names lexical items?...
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This note was uploaded on 05/09/2011 for the course LING 108 taught by Professor Douglasroland during the Spring '11 term at SUNY Buffalo.

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4 Lexicon(1(2) - Click to edit Master subtitle style What is the definition of a word Do spaces define words • How many words in – The cover of

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