comd test 2

comd test 2 - Chapter 7 Morphology Morphology study of the...

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Chapter 7 Morphology · Morphology study of the forms or structures of words · Morpheme (every word has at least one) o The smallest unit of meaning o A minimal unit that can have a dictionary and grammatical meaning o Constant and definite structure o Not the same as syllables (dogs has 2 morphemes but one syllable) o Un Has a certain place · You can’t say happyun, its unhappy. · You can’t have undog, only certain words. o Open vs. Closed Open morphemes are formed with variants · Nouns, verbs, adjs, etc. Closed morphemes cant be changed o Free vs. Bound Free morphemes can stand by themselves as a single word · Also known as stems · Mother, shout Bound morphemes don’t stand alone and are attached to another form · Also known as affixes o If a morpheme can’t stand alone but is not a prefix it is considered a bound stem · S, ing o Free Morpheme Lexical · Words that carry the ‘content’ of the message; have meanings · Ordinary nouns, verbs, and adjectives Functional · Don’t have a meaning but connect lexical morphemes · Conjunctions, prepositions, articles, and pronouns o Bound Morpheme Derivational · Creates new words by changing the grammatical category o Friend + ly Inflectional · Doesn’t create a new meaning, but changes the grammatical function · Used to convey number, tense, comparativeness, and possession · There are only 8 o Noun + -‘s, s o Verb + -s, -ing, -ed, -en o Adjective + -est, -er o Free stem vs. bound stem Free stem can stand alone · Happy of unhappy Bound stems must be “bound” to something · Ceive of receive o Morphs are types of morphemes -ed, and –en (morphs) of past (morpheme)
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Allomorphs are a group of morphs Chapter 8: Phrases and Sentences: Grammar Why The lucky boys *boys the lucky *lucky boys the · Article must be first then adjectives must be before the noun Traditional Grammar: Parts of speech ¨ Nouns Person, place, or thing ¨ Articles A, an , the Introduce nouns ¨ Adjectives Describe nouns ¨ Verbs Tell the action of the sentence ¨ Adverbs Describe the verb, adjectives, or other adverb Usually end in -ly ¨ Prepositions Tell a location Under, in ¨ Pronouns Take the place of personal nonun
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He, she, it, they ¨ Conjunctions Connect things And, but Agreement Person 1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd Verbs agree with the pronouns or nouns Number Plural must describe plural Tense Everything must be past, present, or future Voice Active · The dog caught the frisbee Passive · The frisbee was caught by the dog Gender Not in english Grammatical Gender vs. Natural Gender Natural is male or female Grammatical is in foreign languages when words can be feminine, masculine, or neutral La and le of French Prescriptive approach Grammer books Examples: You must not split an infinitive. You must not end a sentence with a preposition.
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comd test 2 - Chapter 7 Morphology Morphology study of the...

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