L1-Introduction

L1-Introduction - Communication Engineering is concerned...

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1 Communication Engineering is concerned with the electronic transmission of information from the source to the remotely located sink in the presence of noise and other perturbations. Major events that shape the development of modern electronic communications: Year 1838 Telegraph demonstrated by Samuel Morse Event 1864 Electromagnetic radiation predicted by James Maxwell 1876 Telephone patented by Graham Bell 1897 Wireless telegraph system patented by Marconi Strowger invented the step-by-step telephone switch 1904 Diode invented by Fleming 1906 Triode amplifier invented by Lee de Forest 1915 A transcontinental telephone completed by Bell System 1937 Pulse-code modulation (PCM) conceived by Alec Reeves World War 2 Development of radar and microwave Statistical methods applied to the extraction of signals in noise First electronic digital computer ENIAC (1943-46) 1948 Invention of the transistor by Brattain, Bardeen and Shockley “A mathematical theory of communications” by C Shannon 1950 Application of time-division multiplexing to telephony 1956 Established first transoceanic telephone cable 1957 Stored program digital switching demonstrated by Bell Lab Silicon integrated circuit produced by Robert Noyce 1960-1970 Laser demonstrated by Maiman (1960) Launch of first communication satellite Telstar I (1962) T-1 digital telephone system installed by Bell Lab (1962) Adaptive digital signal processing pioneered by R Lucky 1965 Glass fibre for optical communication (Kao and Hockham 66) 1970-1980 Commercial satellite communications Large scale integration Low loss optical fibre cable Packet switched digital transmission Intercontinental computer communication networks
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2 1980-1990 Mobile and cellular telephones Compact disc audio High definition TV 1990- Internet Wireless networks (Cellular, LAN, PAN, WAN, Mesh, Ad-hoc) VO-IP Note: Advances in microelectronics, digital computers and light-wave systems continue to impact modern communications. A communication system is characterised by the presence of uncertainty that is in part due to: the unpredictable nature of information, and the presence in any system of unwanted signal perturbations, broadly referred to as noise and interference The presence of such uncertainty means that the analysis of a communication system always involves the use of probabilistic techniques. Probabilistic system analysis procedures were first used to analyse and optimise communication systems operating in the presence of additive noise by Rice in 1944 and by Wiener in 1949. It was not until the publication by Shannon in 1948 of his paper, “A mathematical theory of communications” that the unpredictable nature of information was recognised. This work marked the beginning of the science of information theory.
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3 A communication system invariably involves three major subsystems: Transmitter Channel Receiver. The block diagram of a typical communication system is shown below:
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L1-Introduction - Communication Engineering is concerned...

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