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4 - • Jihadists o Crisis of religious authority(Usama Bin...

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15:53 Modern Changes o Political, economic problems in Mideast Political turmoil (after breakup of Ottoman Empire) Lingering effects of colonialism o No industrial revolution, loss of resources and political and social order  (East India Company, Suez Canal, BP) o Partial adoption of “western Enlightenment models” > tradition o Resentment against “west”, discontent with loss of “tradition” Israeli-Palestinian conflict  pseudo-unifier for Arabs Oil wealth Criticism of American policies, imperialism, culture, or immorality o Challenge of Secularism (creating political institutions independent of religion) Religious leaders and religious revitalization movements becoming political  (Khomeini, Muslim Brotherhood) Islamism
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Unformatted text preview: • Jihadists o Crisis of religious authority (Usama Bin Laden, Wahhabism, Taliban) Modern Reform Movements o Different meanings of reform o Embracing Enlightenment ideals + Islam • Some seek to liberate Islam from ulama and heir exclusive authority to interpret Shariah • Some enforce local custom as “Islamic” • Some have extended more political power to religious leaders • Some seek synergy between modernity and Islam o Ijtihad o Revitalizing “traditional” intellectualism, adaptation to changing circumstances, interpretation o Avenues of “Reform” taken by Sayyib Qutb, Ayatollah Khomeini, Taliban, Wahhabism, Usama bin Laden, Amina Wadud, Imam Feisal Rauf 15:53 15:53...
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