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Unformatted text preview: Drugs, Behavior, and Drugs, Behavior, and Modern Society
Chapter 1 Drugs and Behavior Today BASIC DEFINITIONS BASIC
• Drug — a chemical substance that, when taken Drug into the body, alters the structure or functioning of the body in some way, excluding those nutrients considered to be related to normal functioning functioning Psychoactive drug — a drug that influences the Psychoactive functioning of the brain and hence our behavior and experience and • TWO TYPES OF DRUG USE TWO
• INSTRUMENTAL USE INSTRUMENTAL A person is taking a drug with a specific socially-approved goal in mind. specific RECREATIONAL USE A person is taking a drug for the sole purpose of experiencing its psychoactive properties (e.g., to get “high”). properties • FOUR CATEGORIES OF DRUG-TAKING BEHAVIOR DRUG-TAKING
• • • • Illicit drug/instrumental use Illicit drug/recreational use Licit drug/instrumental use Licit drug/recreational use DRUG ABUSE/DRUG MISUSE DRUG
• Drug abuse is a form of drug-taking Drug abuse behavior that results in some form of physical, mental, or social impairment. physical, Drug misuse is a form of drug-taking Drug misuse behavior in which a prescription or nonprescription (over-the-counter) drug is used inappropriately. used • BRIEF HISTORY OF DRUGS BRIEF Most drugs come from natural sources, Most such as plants such Late 19th century: No drug laws Cocaine and morphine were contained in Cocaine many household products called patent medicines. Freud prescribed cocaine 20th Century - concerns of addiction and overdose became apparent overdose For children teething. Greatly facilitates the process of Teething, by softening the gums, reducing all inflammation; will allay ALL PAIN and spasmodic action, and is SURE TO REGULATE THE BOWELS. Depend on it, Mothers, it will give rest to yourselves and RELIEF AND HEALTH TO YOUR INFANTS. Sold by all chemists, at 1s 1/2d per bottle." YOUR History of Drugs History 1920’s-1933:Alcohol Prohibition – political and 1920’s-1933:Alcohol moral. Prohibition ended because it was a failure overall overall 1945-1960: Antibiotics Psychopharmacology Contraceptive Pill Smoking is common Drinking is chic Illicit drugs not popular HISTORY OF DRUGS HISTORY 1960’s and 70’s: Children of the 1940’s and 50’s Children Mind expansion was goal of generation Liberal views Anti-Vietnam War Civil Rights Movement Woodstock/Music 1980’s 1980’s Cocaine Hippie to Yuppie Self consumed, not socially conscious PATTERNS OF DRUG USE, PATTERNS U.S. HIGH SCHOOL SENIORS, 1975–PRESENT
Illicit drug use prevalence rates reached Illicit peak about 1979 peak • A steady decline until about 1993 • A reversal upward again from 1993 to reversal about 2001, a slight decline since then about • In 2003, 39 percent reported use of an In illicit drug over the previous year; in 1979, this figure was 54 percent this
• ILLICIT DRUG USE PREVALENCE RATES FOR U.S. HIGH SCHOOL SENIORS, 2005 HIGH
University of Michigan “Monitoring the University Future” study: Future” Over the previous 12 months: • Marijuana — 35 percent • Cocaine — 5 percent • MDMA (Ecstasy) — 5 percent • LSD — 2 percent LICIT DRUG USE PREVALENCE RATES FOR U.S. HIGH SCHOOL SENIORS, 2005 SENIORS,
Over the previous 30 days: • Illicit drugs – 23 percent • Alcohol — 47 percent • Binge drinking — 28 percent At least 1 cigarette every day — 16 percent Demographics of Drug Users Demographics College students – alcohol consumption reduced College slightly when the legal age changed to 21 slightly Binge drinking on college campuses has been Binge steadily on the rise in the last 10-15 years steadily 40% of college students report binge drinking in the 40% last 2 weeks last Drug use is lower among African Americans Drug compared to Caucasians compared Binge drinking and smoking cigarettes is Binge significantly lower among African Americans significantly 26 y.o. and up: 10% use illicit drugs monthly with 26 marijuana most common marijuana Smoking is down! DRUG USE/DRUG ATTITUDES DRUG
• The percentage of high school seniors The reporting a “great risk of harm in regular use” and the percentage reporting using drugs once or more in the past 30 days are mirror images of each other. are Over the years, roughly speaking, as one Over percentage increases, the other percentage decreases (and vice versa). percentage • RISK FACTORS RISK FOR MARIJUANA USE
• • • • • At least a few close friends tried or used At marijuana marijuana Was ever offered marijuana Friends not very upset if tried marijuana Friends once or twice once Marijuana easy to get Perception of not great risk for monthly Perception marijuana use marijuana Gateway Drugs Gateway Gateway Phenomenon: taking certain Gateway drugs leads to the greater likelihood of taking “harder” drugs taking
Cigarettes Cigarettes Alcohol Marijuana Cocaine Heroin ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/09/2011 for the course CHLH 243 taught by Professor Lange during the Fall '08 term at University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign.
- Fall '08