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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 4 Chapter 4 The Major Stimulants: Cocaine and Amphetamines HIGHLIGHTS FROM HIGHLIGHTS FROM THE HISTORY OF COCAINE
• • • • • • • 1200s–1532: Coca chewing practiced by Incans in Peruvian and Bolivian Andes 1859: Alfred Niemann isolates cocaine as the active ingredient in coca leaves 1863: Angelo Mariani markets a mixture of coca and wine called Vin Mariani 1884: Sigmund Freud praises cocaine use 1903: CocaCola Company removes cocaine from its formulation of CocaCola 1914: Harrison Act prohibits cocaine, along with heroin 1980s: Crack cocaine abuse is rampant in America THE JOURNEY OF COCA THE JOURNEY OF COCA TO CRACK
Coca leaves to coca paste • Coca paste to cocaine hydrochloride (powder cocaine) • Powder cocaine to freebase cocaine through removal of hydrochloride portion from the salt form of cocaine • Powder cocaine to crack cocaine through treatment with baking soda
• CHANGING FACE OF COCAINE CHANGING FACE OF COCAINE ABUSE IN FIVE YEARS
• 1983 — Typical cocaine abuser was college educated, employed, earning more than $25,000 per year, and taking cocaine powder intranasally 1988 — Typical cocaine abuser had not gone to college, earned less than $25,000 per year, and was more likely to be smoking crack cocaine • ACUTE EFFECTS OF COCAINE ACUTE EFFECTS OF COCAINE
• • • • • • • • Powerful burst of energy General sense of wellbeing Aphrodisiac properties disputed Heart rate and respiration are increased Appetite is diminished Blood vessels constrict and blood pressure is increased Pupils are dilated Cocaine + Alcohol = Cocaethylene Toxicity PHYSICAL SIGNS OF POSSIBLE PHYSICAL SIGNS OF POSSIBLE COCAINE ABUSE
• • • • • • • • Dilated (enlarged) pupils Increased heart rate Increased irritability Paranoia Sneezing and irritability in the nose Feelings of depression Insomnia Decreased appetite and significant weight loss CHRONIC EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EFFECTS OF COCAINE
Hallucinations (cocaine psychosis) • Continuously stuffy or runny nose • Bleeding of nasal membranes (if cocaine has been snorted) • Intense cocaine craving
• Cocaine in the Brain Cocaine in the Brain Nora Volkow, MD director of NIDA Nora Volkow, MD director of NIDA HIGHLIGHTS FROM THE HIGHLIGHTS FROM THE HISTORY OF AMPHETAMINES
• • • • • • • ~5000 years ago — Chinese herb ma huang first used to treat asthma 1887 — Ephredrine isolated as the active ingredient in ma huang 1927 — Gordon Alles develops a synthetic ephredrine, called amphetamine 1932 — Benzedrine introduced for treatment of asthma World War II — Amphetamines used to keep soldiers and sailors alert 1967–1970s — Amphetamine and methamphetamine abuse reaches peak mid–1990s — Methamphetamine abuse reemerges in the United States METHAMPHETAMINE METHAMPHETAMINE
• • • • Common names: speed, meth, crank Major club drug in New York, Los Angeles, and other U.S. cities Availability of ingredients for methamphetamine manufacture, such as anhydrous ammonia (a common fertilizer) and pseudoepinephrine (found in OTC cold remedies), has fostered proliferation of “laboratories” in small towns and rural areas Relapse rate in methamphetamine abuse treatment is one of the highest for any category of illicit or licit drug abuse ATTENTION ATTENTION DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD)
• • • • Most common psychological disorder among children Three times greater prevalence for boys than for girls ADHD children have average to aboveaverage intelligence About 40 to 60 percent of ADHD children show symptoms persisting to adulthood STIMULANT DRUG STIMULANT DRUG TREATMENT FOR ADHD
• • • About 70 percent of children who take stimulant medication for ADHD respond successfully. Medications include methylphenidate (Ritalin), permoline (Cylert), dextroamphetamine/amphetamine combination (Adderall), and dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine). A selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, atomoxetine (Strattera), was introduced in 2003. It was the first medication for ADHD not related to an increase in dopamine activity in the brain. Are we “pathologizing” normal behavior? Explain. Are we setting up a generation of children to remain dependent on stimulant meds for a lifetime? What are the implications of high percentage of children continuing to take ritalin and adderol into teens and adulthood? Is this affecting higher education? How will this impact the “ADD generation’s” ability to succeed in the workplace? ADHD Discussion ADHD Discussion ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/09/2011 for the course CHLH 243 taught by Professor Lange during the Fall '08 term at University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign.
- Fall '08