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PSY 240 Final- critical thinking, culture of honour

PSY 240 Final- critical thinking, culture of honour - 1 In...

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1. In classical conditioning procedures, it is sometimes possible for higher-order conditioning to occur. Explain this process. Describe the research on higher- order conditioning in which slugs were the research subjects. Ans- Higher order conditioning sometimes occurs in the classical conditioning procedures. The higher order conditioning follows a complete process. In this process of higher order conditioning, the conditioned stimulus (CS) serves as an unconditioned stimulus (UCS). For instance, if any person repeatedly turns on a desk light before sounding the buzzer to pursue classical conditioning (to produce an eye blink at the sound of the buzzer) than after number of repetitions, the turning on of the light would itself produce the eye blink, without sounding of the buzzer. This is higher order conditioning as in this case, the buzzer became a UCS, and the turning on of the light became a CS. the higher order conditioning process can be shown in the form of an equation- CS (light) UCS (buzzer) UCR (eye blink) CR (eye blink) Reference: www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/CliffsReviewTopic/Classical- Conditioning.topicArticleId-25438,articleId-25345.html In the research on the slugs as subjects for higher order conditioning, slugs were conditioned to avoid carrot and cucumber odors. The conditioning measure used ‘odor preferences’ were defined as the percentage of time that slug spent on the carrot/ cucumber side of the chamber in the carrot/ cucumber versus frog chow trials. This was obtained by dividing the total amount of time each slug’s head was on the carrot/cucumber side by the total experimental time. Reference: http://learnmem.cshlp.org/content/4/4/356.full.pdf+html
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2. Many people don't realize that just as the body needs exercise to stay in shape, clear thinking requires effort and practice. Name and give five examples of each of the eight guidelines to critical thinking. Ans- Eight guidelines to critical thinking are- 1-Describe - state what it is What is it? Where is it? What is an example of it? What is it not? How does it act? 2 Analyze - break it down into its component parts What is it made up of? What are its sections? How many parts does it have?
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