01252011SPRNTR342-CarbFiberDigest

01252011SPRNTR342-CarbFiberDigest - Digestion Absorption...

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Digestion, Absorption, and Properties of Carbohydrates and Dietary Fiber Reading: Gropper 4 th ed, Ch 4, pp. 72–80; Ch 5, pp. 108–119 Gropper 5 th ed, Ch 3, pp. 63–72; Ch 4, pp. 108–121; Ch 2, pp. 53–55
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2 Objectives for today: Review chemical structures of carbohydrates Review sites of digestion and mechanisms of absorption of carbohydrates Understand mechanism of lactose intolerance and related syndromes
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3 Objectives for today (cont.): Review types of dietary fiber Review effects of dietary fiber on GI tract and impact on health Briefly examine the interface between GI tract and immune system
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4 Definition: Carbohydrates are compounds made up of single or multiple sugars and composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; formula = (CH 2 O) n provide 4 kcal/g the preferred energy source, especially for the brain and nervous system and red blood cells
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5 Carbohydrate classification: Monosaccharides: 1 sugar moiety hexoses = glucose, fructose, galactose Disaccharides: 2 sugar moieties sucrose, lactose, maltose Oligosaccharides: 3 or more glucose moieties dextrins; derived from starch or glycogen Polysaccharides: 10s to 1000s glucose moieties starch, glycogen, fibers (except lignin)
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6 Glucose structure In aqueous solution monosaccharides do not exist as open chains Instead, they cyclize, forming ring structures in α and β configurations (anomers) These configurations exist in equilibrium Some enzymes are stereospecific; for example, α -amylase hydrolyzes the α linkages in starch but not the β linkages in cellulose
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7 OH OH OH OH H H H H C C C C CH 2 OH 1 2 3 4 5 6 carbon D-Glucose (open chain) Structure of glucose in its linear form
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8 OH OH OH O H H H H H H C C C C C O CH 2 OH 6 1 O CH 2 OH O H OH OH OH 6 1 α -anomer of glucose O CH 2 OH O H OH OH OH 6 1 β - anomer of glucose Glucose in its ring forms
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9 Table 4-1, p. 75 9
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Structure of Common Sugars 1010
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11 Disaccharides Major disaccharides Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose Lactose = Glucose + Galactose Maltose = Glucose + Glucose
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12 O CH 2 OH O O CH 2 OH SUCROSE (glucose-fructose) α -1,2-bond OH CH 2 OH O O O LACTOSE (galactose-glucose) β -1,4-bond OH OH CH 2 OH CH 2 OH O O O MALTOSE (glucose-glucose) OH OH CH 2 OH CH 2 OH α -1,4-bond O O O OH OH CH 2 OH CH 2 OH α -1,1-bond TREHALOSE (glucose-glucose) Structures of the most common disaccharides 1 2 1 4 1 1 1 4
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13 Glucose Dietary sources of glucose: Disaccharides Sucrose (table sugar; 50% glucose/50% fructose) Lactose (milk sugar) Maltose (malt) High Fructose Corn Syrup (45% glucose + 55% fructose) Complex carbohydrates Plant starch (amylose & amylopectin) Animal starch (glycogen)
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14 Fig. 4-4a, p. 76 14 α 1,4
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15 Galactose + Glucose β 1,4 Fig. 4-4b, p. 76
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16 Fig. 4-4c, p. 76 Glucose + Fructose α 1,2
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17 Disaccharides
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