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01272011SPRNTR342-LipidDigest

01272011SPRNTR342-LipidDigest - Digestion Absorption and...

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Digestion, Absorption, and Properties of Lipids Reading: Gropper, 4 th ed, Ch 6, pp. 128–139; Ch 2, pp. 40–45 Gropper, 5 th ed, Ch 5, pp. 131–144; Ch 2, pp. 48–51
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2 Objectives for today: Review chemical structures of lipids Review sites of digestion and mechanisms of absorption
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3 Lipids: a broad and diverse range of structures Soluble in organic solvents (hydrophobic) Of biological origin Most also have hydrophilic groups
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4 Role of Dietary Lipids Provide a dense energy supply (9 kcal/g) Provide “mouth feel” Increase satiety by slowing intestinal transit time Supply essential fatty acids Facilitate absorption of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K)
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5 Classes Fatty acids Saturated, nonsaturated Acylglycerols (Glycerides) Mono-, di-, triacylglycerols ~95% of dietary lipid intake Phospholipids
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6 Classes (cont.) Nonglycerides Sterols and steroids Cholesterol, steroid hormones, vitamin D, bile Sphingolipids, etc. Complex lipid derivatives Glycolipids Lipoproteins
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7 Fatty acid structure Hydrocarbon chain (4 to 28 carbons long) Usually even carbon numbers (some fish FA may have odd carbon numbers) Carboxyl end (hydrophilic) Methyl end (hydrophobic) Unsaturated = double bonds cis configuration kinks the hydrocarbon chain trans configuration does not kink the chain Monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA): 1 double bond Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) : > 2 double bonds
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8 Fig. 6-1a, p. 130
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9 cis & trans C = C H R R H C = C H R R H cis = “on this side” trans = across
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10 Fig. 6-1c, p. 130
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11 Fig. 6-1b, p. 130
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12 Fatty acid nomenclature Common name: palmitic acid, palmitoleic, arachidonic 2200 system counts from the carboxyl end: 16:0, 16:1 9 , 20:4 5,8,11,14 n (or ω ) system counts from the methyl end: 16:0, 16:1 (n-7), 20:4 (n-6) Double bonds are always separated by three carbon atoms
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13 Fig. 6-2, p. 130
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14 Table 6-1, p. 131
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15 Two Essential Fatty Acids Humans lack 12 and 15 desaturases and therefore cannot synthesize linoleic acid and α -linolenic acid These two fatty acids must be obtained from plants These two fatty acids generate two families of eicosanoids (20-carbon fatty acids with potent activities)
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16 Two Essential Fatty Acids 12 15 12
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