Module 6 - Lecture Notes (HLS-355-OL)

Module 6 - Lecture Notes (HLS-355-OL) - Module 6 Common...

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Unformatted text preview: Module 6: Common Fallacies of Reasoning Underlying our conclusions are the assumptions we have made. These assumptions are often what cause our argument or conclusions to be fallacious. In Module 4, we talked about some conclusions and their underlying assumptions. Because these are subconscious opinions, we often do not realize they are ‘driving’ our conclusions rather than the facts. Browne and Keeley refer to these assumptions as “an unstated belief about how the world was, is, or will become” (Browne & Keeley, 2007, p.73). One example is “Exercise requires using the muscles.” What is underlying this opinion/conclusion is the assumption that “exercise” is defined as physical exercise. Are there other types of exercise? How about mental exercise, or an exercise on the previous page? Logic is the science of reasoning. It is the glue that holds together our facts and allows us to build a solid argument. There are two types of logic generally used; deductive and inductive reasoning. With deductive argument....
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