Ch1 - Stat 0302B Business Statistics Spring 2010-2011...

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Stat 0302B Business Statistics Spring 2010-2011 Prologue Statistics – What is it ? Statistics deals with the collection and analysis of data to solve real-world problems. Time Contributor Contribution Greece Philosophers Idea – no quantitative analyses. Ancient Babylonians Egyptians Collect demographical data for tax collection and recruitment of military units. 14 th Century European marine companies Marine insurance rates were set using data concerning the success of the transportation of goods. Blasé Pascal Pierre de Fermat Studied probability through games of chance and gambling. 17 th Century Jacob Bernoulli Proved the law of large numbers -- as the number of observations increased, “the ratio of observed successful to unsuccessful occurrences will differ from the true ratio within certain small limits.” Pierre Simon Laplace Karl Friedrich Gauss Constructed the normal curve, developed the application of probability ideas to astronomy. 18 th Century Statistics underwent simultaneous horizontal and vertical development : Horizontal : methods spread among disciplines including astronomy, geodesy, psychology, biology, social sciences, etc. Vertical : understanding of mathematical probability theory led to the development of statistical inference. Adolphe Quetelet Astronomer who first applied statistical analyses to human biology. 19 th Century Sir Francis Galton Studied genetic variation in humans, using regression and correlation . Karl Pearson Studied natural selection using correlation, formed first academic department of statistics, Biometrika journal, helped develop the Chi Square analysis . William Sealy Gossett (Student) Studied process of brewing, alerted the statistics community about problems with small sample sizes, developed Student's test . Sir Ronald Fisher Evolutionary biologists who developed ANOVA , stressed the importance of experimental design. 20 th Century Computer Technology Provided many advantages over calculations by hand or by calculator, stimulated the growth of investigation into new techniques. P.1

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Stat 0302B Business Statistics Spring 2010-2011 The word “Statistics” is derived from the Latin word for “the state” as the first important accumulation of data was for the purposes of the state. “Statistik” – probably first used by the German philosopher Gottfried Achenwall in middle of the eighteenth century. It referred to “inquiries respecting the Population, Political Circumstances, the Production of a Country, and other Matters of State”. While the science of statistics was being studied in Germany, the words “Statistics” and “Statistical” were introduced into the English language around 1787 by Ebesherd A.W. von Zimmerman (1743-1815). Elements of Statistics Hypothesis Testing Interval Point Estimation Inference l Statistica Graphics l Statistica and Statistics e Descriptiv Analysis Data Study nal Observatio
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Ch1 - Stat 0302B Business Statistics Spring 2010-2011...

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