Micro Lecture 3

Micro Lecture 3 - Biology 31 Microbiology Lecture 3...

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Biology 31 Microbiology Lecture 3 Microbial Metabolism and Growth What is Metabolism? Sum of chemical reactions (occurring in) of an organism Destruction Metabolism Catabolism Typically releases energy Construction Metabolism Anabolism Typically requires energy input Energy Ability to do work Measured in calories Amount of energy required to increase m ml of H2O 1˚ Centigrade Amount of hear required to increase 1 gm. H2O 1˚ C Both the same Calories = kilocalories (1X1000) (food calorie is not 1, but 1,000!) Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Form of energy required for cellular activities Acquired from breakdown of organic compounds (especially glucose) Molecule containing energy *Energy releasing pathways discussed later Enzymes Molecules composed of: Protein Cofactor Metal ion Organic molecule (coenzyme) Catalysts Speed up the rate of a reaction, but not themselves changed in the reaction Drive metabolic reactions Enzyme A + B AB Reactions occur more slowly without enzymes Enzymes assist the reaction
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Factors that influence enzyme activity: Temperature 38.5˚ C -39˚C is critical threat to human cells Activity Temperature pH measure of acidity in aqueous solution Substrate (reactants) concentration Inhibitors Interfere with enzyme’s ability to Catalase reaction i.e. – cyanide inhibits enzymes in aerobic activity Trophic levels Autotroph Produce own organic (carbon-based) energy Plants, some protistans, some bacteria Generally not harmful to humans Heterotroph Consume organic energy Animals, fungi, some protistans, some bacteria More likely to cause harm to humans Energy Acquiring Pathways Metabolic Chemical pathways that produce organic energy Methods used by autotrophs to generate energy Photosynthesis Occurs when energy in sunlight is captured in chlorophyll (green pigment)
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Micro Lecture 3 - Biology 31 Microbiology Lecture 3...

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