anthro101lec14.feb11.y08 - ANTHROPOLOGY 101 02.11.08...

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Unformatted text preview: ANTHROPOLOGY 101 02.11.08 LECTURE 14 Becoming Human 1 Kottak 05 I. Big watersheds, big questions: Our shared human history. A. Big watersheds: 1. Origins of humankind : The break from hominoid to hominid lines--> apparently in the neighborhood of 5 - 6 million yrs. ago with the emergence of ardipithecus--> and the earliest break in lineage leading directly to us is about 2.5 million yrs. ago with Homo habilis 2. Origins of anatomically modern humans : --> Homo erectus : about 1.8 million yrs. ago 3. Development of food production systems :--> about 10,000 yrs. ago 4. Origins & characteristics of complex forms of social organization :--> from bands to tribes to chiefdoms to states B. Big questions: 1. Anatomical & evolutionary : the development of the species; the implications of physical features for the kind of subsistence, social life, and imagination they permit 2. Subsistence : the ways of biological survival pursued; implications for the human condition in terms of relations to environment; watersheds like the move from being a species closely adapted to environmental systems to a species in temporary control of its environment 3. Social Complexity : numbers of people in face to face contact; links among populations--the development of larger and more inclusive systems of interaction; the questions of inequality and exploitation arising 4. Social Imagination, Cosmology, & Meaning : harder to do with material remains, but archaeologists give it a shot. The questions here are both of possibility (what was Homo erectus religion like? Can we even talk in these terms?) and content (how was ritual life organized among the Neanderthal?). 1 ANTHROPOLOGY 101 02.11.08 LECTURE 14 Becoming Human 1 Kottak 05 II. Whats in a name? A. Weve made some references to Linnaeus in class already--hes the fellow who gave us the taxonomic system we use to classify kinds of living things--> the classification system actually includes a number of different logical levels that distinguish degree of similarity--heres a part of it with reference to us:------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ CATEGORY OUR GROUP FRIENDS & NEIGHBORS IN GROUP------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ORDER Primates Prosimians, Monkeys, Apes & Us SUBORDER Anthropoidea Monkeys, Apes & Us (cf. Prosimii) SUPERFAMILY Hominoidea Apes & Us FAMILY Hominidae Us (& Pongidae, Panidae & Hylobatidae) * GENUS Homo Us SPECIES sapiens Us SUBSPECIESsapiens Us ________________________________________________________________________ (*Note: Remember the changes in classification that put Pongidae, Panidae, Hylobatidae and Homo all within the Hominidae) B. Of course, our table is cross-sectional so it only shows currently existing representatives of each category--> in fact, its quite common in the animal world to find multiple groups at each...
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anthro101lec14.feb11.y08 - ANTHROPOLOGY 101 02.11.08...

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