Energy_1_website - Energy Energy I A 1 Definition The...

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1 Energy. .. Energy I. Definition A. The energy content of feedstuffs 1. In animal nutrition, we are interested in the chemical (molecular) energy of feedstuffs 2. Heat energy can be determined by bomb calorimetry 3. One calorie raises the temperature of 1 g of water 1°C (i.e., 14.5 to 15.5 °C ); a kilo- calorie (kcal) raises 1000 g or water 1 °C Bomb calorimetry Energy ± IUPAC has adopted the Joule: 1 Joule is 107 ergs (0.239 calories), and 1 kcal = 4.185 kJoules ± In nonruminant diet formulation, we will deal largely with the kcal ± In ruminant nutrition, we will deal primarily with the Mcal Energy II. From gross energy to net energy A. All materials containing carbon and hydrogen that can be oxidized to CO 2 and water represent potential energy for animals. We refer to this energy value as the gross energy content of a feedstuff. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6H 2 O + 686 kcal/mole (heat) B. Not all of the gross energy is available to the animal for use. Gross Energy in feed consumed Fecal energy Urinary energy Heat of nutrient metabolism Digestible energy Metabolizable energy Net energy Maintenance a. Basal metabolism c. Body heat (warmth) b. involuntary activity d. Heat loss (cooling) Production a. Tissue growth c. Eggs e. Work b. Reproduction d. Milk Energy. ..
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2 Digestibility: _______________ input (input - fecal output) X 100% Nutrient Requirements C. The chemical composition of ingredients dictate the digestible and metabolizable energy content of a feed. 1. Carbohydrates a. Monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides b. Cellulose, hemicellulose c. Lignin 2. Fats a. Degree of saturation b. Mono, di and triglycerides; fatty acid location on the glycerol backbone 3. Amino Acids (glucogenic and ketogenic) Energy D. Carbohydrates as Energy Sources 1. Polysaccharides from cereal grains, and grain products such as wheat middlings A. Starch: amylose (straight chain polymer) and amylopectin (branched chain polymer) B. Nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) (Fiber):
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Energy_1_website - Energy Energy I A 1 Definition The...

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