NSG682 Advanced PathophysiologyResponsesAlissa Judge Camacho 2. Discuss the below Mini Case Study:a. What risk factors does she have for cervical cancer?According to the Centers for Disease Control, almost all cervical cancers are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), a common sexually transmitted disease. Not regularly using barrier contraception such as male condoms increases her risk of cervical cancer, as does having numerous sexual partners, having sex with males who have numerous sexual partners, and having sex at an early age. Males currently cannot get tested for HPV and therefore unknowinglyspread it to their partners, who spread it to the next person they engage in intercourse with. Risk factors that do not or may not apply to this patient include smoking, being immunocompromised,having HIV, having another sexually transmitted infection such as chlamydia or gonorrhea, usingbirth control for over 5 years, low socioeconomic status, marrying before 18 years of age, and having more than three children (Kashyap et al., 2019).b. Describe the pathogenesis of Human Papilloma Virus.HPV is the major causative factor of carcinoma of the cervix. The part of the uterus that is closest to the body of the cervix is called the endocervix; cervical cancer generally begins in the lining of the cervix in the lower part of the uterus. HPV can infect basal epithelial cells of the skin, genitals, and mucosa. HPV infection occurs at the basal cell layer of stratified squamous epithelial cells; infected cells can produce effects from hyperplasia to dysplasia to carcinoma. HPV replicates using the host cell and viral protein product encoded by E6 proteins (Li et al., 2017).
HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS (HPV)2c. Why should HPV testing be done and what are the tests to ordered?Cervical cancer can be cured if diagnosed at an early age. The Centers for Disease Control recommends females aged 21-65 get screened for HPV. Screening and treatment of pre-cancerous lesions is the best and cost-effective way to prevent cervical cancer in the first place. According to the World Health Organization, early detection and treatment prevents up to 80% of cervical cancers in developed countries. The WHO recommends HPV testing for high-risk HPV types, visual inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA), and Pap tests and liquid-based cytology (LBC). Screening is recommended for every woman aged 30 and afterwards, and the frequency of Pap test screening remains the same regardless if the woman has had the HPV vaccine or has ahistory of external genital warts. The Pap smear indirectly looks for HPV by detecting the cervical abnormalities and epithelial cellular changes that indicate HPV infection. Pap testing is recommended every 3 years or a Pap plus HPV co-test every 5 years.