Titration Curves_2011 - TITRATION Acid/base titration is...

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TITRATION Acid/base titration is used to determine the concentration of an acid or a base in an unknown solution. The solution with the unknown concentration is called the analyte . The solution with the known concentration is called the titrant . So, how do we perform a titration? To a specific volume of the analyte we use a buret to slowly add just enough titrant to react all the analyte. This is called the stoichiometric point or the equivalence point. An indicator is used to help us detect the equivalence point of the titration. We can also use a pH meter to follow the pH changes and plot to produce a titration curve. From the plot, we determine the equivalence point. Equivalence Point: the point at which chemically equivalent amounts (stoichiometric amounts) of reactants have reacted. End Point: the point at which an indicator changes color and the titration should be stopped. How is the data obtained from a titration experiment used to determine the concentration of the analyte? Since both the volume and the concentration of the titrant are known, its number of moles can be calculated. The stoichiometric relationship between the analyte and the titrant is used (from the corresponding balanced chemical equation) to figure out the number of moles of the analyte. Once the number of moles of the analyte is calculated, and since the volume is already known, one can calculate the concentration of the analyte, M = n/V.
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