Ch6 notes - 1 Chapter 6 Basic Structure of the Periodic...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Chapter 6 § Basic Structure of the Periodic Table § How electrons “reside” in atoms 2 The Periodic Table § Mendelev, 1869 § arranged elements in order of increasing atomic mass § led to natural grouping of elements with similar chemical properties § predicted existence of elements that had yet to be discovered § some inconsistencies 3 The Periodic Table § The Modern Periodic Table § elements listed in order of increasing atomic number § Group § a vertical column of elements § contains elements with similar chemical properties § Period § a horizontal row of elements § elements are not related chemically 4 5 The Periodic Table § Metals-lustre-thermal and electrical conductivity-malleability § Nonmetals-absence of the above properties § Metalloids-properties intermediate between those of metals and nonmetals 6 Group Names periodic table § Group I (1) : Alkali Metals (not including hydrogen) § Group II (2) : Alkaline Earth Metals § Group VIIA(17): Halogens § Group VIIIA (18) : The Noble (Inert) Gases 7 The Periodic Table of the Elements 8 Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table § How are electrons “housed” in an atom? § How does the distribution of electrons in an atom affect the properties of that atom? 9 Distribution of Electrons in Atoms § Electron § subatomic particle with negative charge § negligible mass § located outside the nucleus § moves rapidly in a volume that describes the size of the atom § higher velocity, higher energy, farther from nucleus § energy of an electron is quantized; can have only certain specific energies 10 Behaviour of an Electron § Energy of an electron determines its behaviour about the nucleus § Energy is quantized therefore electrons can only have certain “behaviour” The chemistry of an element arises from its electrons 11 Energy Levels of the Electron § Electron Shells § main energy levels § electrons in the same shell -have approximately the same energy and -are approximately the same distance from the nucleus § shells are labeled by values of n, where n = 1, 2, 3, 4,…… . § as n increases: the average energy of the shell increases the distance from the nucleus increases maximum 2n 2 electrons per shell 12 Energy Levels of the Electron § Electron Subshells § an energy sublevel within an electron shell § all electrons in the same subshell have the same energy # of subshells in a shell = n , the shell number n= 1 shell has 1 subshell, n=4 shell has 4 subshells § subshells are labeled by the value of n, the shell to which they belong, and by a letter: s, p, d, f, (g, h…) for the specific subshell § relative energy : s < p < d < f (within the same shell) 13 Energy Levels of the Electron § Electron Orbitals § each subshell has one or more orbitals § a region of space around a nucleus where an electron with a specific energy is most likely to be found....
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Ch6 notes - 1 Chapter 6 Basic Structure of the Periodic...

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