Ch6 notes - 1 Chapter 6 Basic Structure of the Periodic...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Chapter 6 Basic Structure of the Periodic Table How electrons reside in atoms 2 The Periodic Table Mendelev, 1869 arranged elements in order of increasing atomic mass led to natural grouping of elements with similar chemical properties predicted existence of elements that had yet to be discovered some inconsistencies 3 The Periodic Table The Modern Periodic Table elements listed in order of increasing atomic number Group a vertical column of elements contains elements with similar chemical properties Period a horizontal row of elements elements are not related chemically 4 5 The Periodic Table Metals-lustre-thermal and electrical conductivity-malleability Nonmetals-absence of the above properties Metalloids-properties intermediate between those of metals and nonmetals 6 Group Names periodic table Group I (1) : Alkali Metals (not including hydrogen) Group II (2) : Alkaline Earth Metals Group VIIA(17): Halogens Group VIIIA (18) : The Noble (Inert) Gases 7 The Periodic Table of the Elements 8 Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table How are electrons housed in an atom? How does the distribution of electrons in an atom affect the properties of that atom? 9 Distribution of Electrons in Atoms Electron subatomic particle with negative charge negligible mass located outside the nucleus moves rapidly in a volume that describes the size of the atom higher velocity, higher energy, farther from nucleus energy of an electron is quantized; can have only certain specific energies 10 Behaviour of an Electron Energy of an electron determines its behaviour about the nucleus Energy is quantized therefore electrons can only have certain behaviour The chemistry of an element arises from its electrons 11 Energy Levels of the Electron Electron Shells main energy levels electrons in the same shell -have approximately the same energy and -are approximately the same distance from the nucleus shells are labeled by values of n, where n = 1, 2, 3, 4, . as n increases: the average energy of the shell increases the distance from the nucleus increases maximum 2n 2 electrons per shell 12 Energy Levels of the Electron Electron Subshells an energy sublevel within an electron shell all electrons in the same subshell have the same energy # of subshells in a shell = n , the shell number n= 1 shell has 1 subshell, n=4 shell has 4 subshells subshells are labeled by the value of n, the shell to which they belong, and by a letter: s, p, d, f, (g, h) for the specific subshell relative energy : s < p < d < f (within the same shell) 13 Energy Levels of the Electron Electron Orbitals each subshell has one or more orbitals a region of space around a nucleus where an electron with a specific energy is most likely to be found....
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Ch6 notes - 1 Chapter 6 Basic Structure of the Periodic...

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