Ch7 notes - 1 Chemical Bonding Octet Rule Types of Chemical...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Chemical Bonding Octet Rule Types of Chemical Bonds The Covalent Bond Lewis Dot Structures: representing electrons in covalent bonding situations Types of Covalent Bonds Strength and Length of Covalent Bonds 2 Chemical Bonding Chapter 7 Recall Octet Rule In forming compounds atoms will lose, gain or share electrons in such a way as to obtain a noble gas electron configuration ( 8 valence electrons) for each of the atoms involved. NaCl Na + same electron configuration as Ne Cl- same electron configuration as Ar Chemical Bond Attractive forces that hold atoms or ions together in more complex aggregates. 3 Types of Chemical Bonds Ionic Bonds form between metal and nonmetal atoms electron transfer occurs (M nonM) electrostatic interactions as a solid, an aggregate forms due to the attractive forces among closely packed oppositely charged ions no discrete molecules; an extended, potentially infinite, array arrangement maximizes attractive forces and minimizes repulsive forces ionic complexes: strong bonds, high melting points if dissolved in water generally give individual ions in solution 4 Types of Chemical Bonds Covalent Bonds involve the sharing of electrons between atoms most often occur between two nonmetal atoms occur in molecular compounds and within polyatomic ions: CO 2 , H 2 O , NO 3- , NH 4 + the bonding force resulting from two nuclei attracting the same shared electrons Important Note: It is the valence electrons of the atoms that are involved in both ionic and covalent bonding. 5 H 2 Molecule . . . . two H nuclei, separated by distance r, each with one electron in a 1s orbital: as the distance r decreases the orbitals will overlap, and each electron is simultaneously attracted to each positive nucleus 1s 1s e- e- e- e- Overlap area is now the region of highest electron density; highest probability of finding an electron here r attractive forces win out over repulsive forces 6 H 2 Molecule Net Result: electron density between the nuclei is increased electrons are shared by the two nuclei forming a covalent bond molecule behaves as a distinct unit H 2 molecule is more stable than two individual H atoms the two atoms are held together because both electrons are attracted to both nuclei simultaneously the attraction overcomes any repulsion due to like charges being close together 7 Electron Dot (Lewis Dot) Structures Representation of the valence electrons in atoms of an element, in ions, in ionic bonds or in atoms in a covalent bond....
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Ch7 notes - 1 Chemical Bonding Octet Rule Types of Chemical...

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