Test 2 Notes.

Test 2 Notes. - Test 2 Bones Bones are organs made of...

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Test 2 Bones - Bones are organs made of different tissues o Osseous tissue o Connective tissue Cartilage Adipose Dense CT o Epithelial tissue o Nervous tissue NAV- nerve, artery, vein How they travel - Main points in this chapter o How bones form o How bones age o How bones are affected by exercise and activity Function - Support o Posture - Protection o Internal organs - Movement o Attachment site for muscles, which allow us to move
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- Mineral storage o Calcium - Hemopoiesis o Production of red blood cells that takes place in the bone marrow - Fat storage o Supply of energy Types of Bones - Long bone o Ex. Humerus, femur o Longer than they are wide and contain more compact bone than spongy bone - Short bone o Ex. Trapezoid o Wider than they are long and contain more spongy bone than compact bone - Flat bone o Ex. Sternum, skull o Layer of spongy bone in between two layers of compact bone- diploe - Irregular bone o Ex. Vertebra - Sesamoid bone o Ex. Patella o Usually always associated with attachment of tendons and ligaments
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o Find them where there is a lot of friction Anatomy of a Long Bone - Diaphysis o Body of a long bone Also called shaft of the bone - Epiphysis o Proximal and distal epiphysis o Ends of the long bone - Metaphysis o Contains the growth plate (epiphysial plate/line) o Located between the epiphysis and the Diaphysis - Articular Cartilage o Colored in blue, found at the ends of long bones o Reduces friction between articulating bones - Periosteum o Thin covering on the outside of the bone, tough o 2 layers Fibrous dense irregular connective tissue layer Osteogenic layer Layer that gives nourishment to the bone When you break a bone, this is the part that will remodel the bone and help it to grow back - Endosteum
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o Lining of the medullary cavity - Medullary cavity o Hollow part of the bone in the diaphysis o Bone marrow is found here Bone Surface Markings - Depressions and openings o Fissure- narrow slit between adjacent bones o Foramen- opening through which blood vessels and nerves pass o Fossa-indention or a shallow depression(muscle attachment) o Sulcus- groove or a furrow o Meatus- canal or a passageway - Processes that form joints o Condyle- protuberance at the end of a bone o Facet- found on the vertebra, smooth, flat articular surface o Head- rounded large part at the end of a long bone (proximal end) - Processes that form attachment points for connective tissues o Crest- prominent ridge o Epicondyle- sits on top of a condyle o Line- line of demarcation, narrow slit or furrow, doesn’t indent very much, border o Spinous processes- slender projection o Trochanter- very large projection o Tubercle-nodule or a small eminence
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o Tuberosity- roughened part of the bone Bone Tissue Cell Types - Remember, mesenchyme cell always comes first - Osteogenic cell o Can still divide o Immature cell o Undifferentiated o Found in the Periosteum and endosteum - Osteoblasts o Forms the bone matrix and collagen fibers o Cannot divide
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Test 2 Notes. - Test 2 Bones Bones are organs made of...

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