The novel itself begins with a series of letters from the explorer Robert Walton to his sister, Margaret Saville.
Walton, a well-to-do Englishman with a passion for seafaring, is the captain of a ship headed on a dangerous
voyage to the North Pole. In the first letter, he tells his sister of the preparations leading up to his departure and
of the desire burning in him to accomplish “some great purpose”—discovering a northern passage to the
Pacific, revealing the source of the Earth’s magnetism, or simply setting foot on undiscovered territory.
Summary: Letters 2–3
In the second letter, Walton bemoans his lack of friends. He feels lonely and isolated,
too sophisticated to find comfort in his shipmates and too uneducated to find a sensitive soul with whom to
share his dreams. He shows himself a Romantic, with his “love for the marvellous, a belief in the marvellous,”
which pushes him along the perilous, lonely pathway he has chosen. In the brief third letter, Walton tells his
sister that his ship has set sail and that he has full confidence that he will achieve his aim.
Summary: Letter 4
In the fourth letter, the ship stalls between huge sheets of ice, and Walton and his men spot
a sledge guided by a gigantic creature about half a mile away. The next morning, they encounter another sledge
stranded on an ice floe. All but one of the dogs drawing the sledge is dead, and the man on the sledge—not the
man seen the night before—is emaciated, weak, and starving. Despite his condition, the man refuses to board
the ship until Walton tells him that it is heading north. The stranger spends two days recovering, nursed by the
crew, before he can speak. The crew is burning with curiosity, but Walton, aware of the man’s still-fragile state,
prevents his men from burdening the stranger with questions. As time passes, Walton and the stranger become
friends, and the stranger eventually consents to tell Walton his story. At the end of the fourth letter, Walton
states that the visitor will commence his narrative the next day; Walton’s framing narrative ends and the
Analysis: Preface and Letters 1–4
The preface to Frankenstein sets up the novel as entertainment, but with a
serious twist—a science fiction that nonetheless captures “the truth of the elementary principles of human
nature.” The works of Homer, Shakespeare, and Milton are held up as shining examples of the kind of work
Frankenstein aspires to be. Incidentally, the reference to “Dr. Darwin” in the first sentence is not to the famous
evolutionist Charles Darwin, who was seven years old at the time the novel was written, but to his grandfather,
the biologist Erasmus Darwin.
In addition to setting the scene for the telling of the stranger’s narrative,
Walton’s letters introduce an important character—Walton himself—whose story parallels Frankenstein’s. The
second letter introduces the idea of loss and loneliness, as Walton complains that he has no friends with whom