Chapter_16[1] - Kinetics: Rates and Mechanisms of Chemical...

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Kinetics: Rates and Mechanisms of Chemical Reactions 16.1 Focusing on Reaction Rate 16.2 Expressing the Reaction Rate Average, Instantaneous, and Initial Rates Rate and Concentration 16.3 The Rate Law and Its Components Laboratory Methods for Determining Initial Rate Determining Reaction Orders Determining the Rate Constant 16.4 Integrated Rate Laws: Concentration Changes over Time First-, Second-, and Zero-Order Reactions Determining Reaction Order Reaction Half-Life 16.5 Theories of Chemical Kinetics Collision Theory Transition State Theory 16.6 Reaction Mechanisms: The Steps from Reactant to Product Elementary Reactions and Molecularity The Rate-Determining Step The Mechanism and the Rate Law 16.7 Catalysis: Speeding Up a Reaction Basis of Catalytic Action Homogeneous Catalysis Heterogeneous Catalysis Biological Catalysis siL02656_ch16_0626_0675.indd 626 10/19/10 10:43:22 AM
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Concepts and skills to review before you study this chapter •± ± infuence±oF±temperature±on±molecular±speed±and± collision±Frequency±(Section±5.5) 16 Y ou are in a small, thermoregulatory minority. About 85% of animal species—all reptiles and most amphibians, insects, and fish—rely predominantly on heat from the environment to maintain the speeds of the reactions that keep them alive. Only mammals (like us) and birds generate enough heat within their bodies for these reactions to proceed at a life-sustaining pace. Temperature, as you’ll see, has a critical effect on the speed, or rate, of a reaction. Until now, we haven’t focused quantitatively on factors affecting reactions, other than the amounts of reactants and products and their molecular nature. Yet, while a balanced equation is essential for calculating yields, it tells us nothing about three dynamic aspects of chemical change: •± How±fast±is±the±reaction±proceeding? How±far±will±the±reaction±proceed±toward±completion? •± •± Will±the±reaction±proceed±by±releasing±energy±or±by±requiring±it? This chapter addresses the first of these questions and focuses on the field of kinetics. We’ll±address±the±other±two±questions±in±upcoming±chapters.±Answering±all±three±is± crucial to understanding modern technology, the environment, and the reactions in living things. IN THIS CHAPTER . . . We examine the rate of a reaction, the factors that affect it, the theories that explain those effects, and the stepwise changes reactants undergo as they transform into products. We introduce some general ideas about reaction rates and overview three key factors that affect them—concentration, physical state, and temperature. We express rate through a rate law and determine its components. We see how concentrations change as a reaction proceeds and discuss the meaning of half-life.
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This note was uploaded on 05/12/2011 for the course CHEM 2 taught by Professor Sadsa during the Spring '11 term at Punjab Engineering College.

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Chapter_16[1] - Kinetics: Rates and Mechanisms of Chemical...

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