ChemicalKinetics_5[1]

ChemicalKinetics_5[1] - Introductory University Chemistry 2...

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Introductory University Chemistry 2 Unit 1 Chemical Kinetics
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Some useful mathematical formulas for this course If a x = N, then x = log a N a o = 1 or log 1 = 0 M log = log M – log N N log MN = log M + log N 1 dx = ln x + constant x x n+1 x n dx = + constant n+1 log x y = y log x
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Introduction For a chemical reaction: Reactants Products Extent of a chemical reaction Reactants Products Energy
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Reaction coordinate of a chemical reaction Reactants Energy Thermodynamics Thermodynamics Thermodynamics - energy change and the extent (chemical equilibrium) Chemical kinetics - the reaction rates Extent of a chemical reaction Products Kinetics
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The area of chemistry concerned with the speeds, or rates, at which a chemical reaction occurs is called chemical kinetics . Thermodynamics Extent of a chemical reaction Reactants Products Energy Kinetics Thermodynamics
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Rates of reaction 2 NO 2 (g) 2 NO (g) + O 2 (g) at 300 o C 1. Concentration of NO 2 decreases with time (Not linear) 4 [NO 2 ] [NO] 5 2. Concentration of O 2 increases with time 3. Concentration of NO increases (doubles that of the O 2 ) 1 2 3 0 100 200 300 Time (s) [O 2 ]
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Rate of Reactions Change in amount (or concentration ) of substance A Reaction rate = Time taken Concentration of A at t 2 – concentration of A at t 1 Reaction rate = Any measurable changes t 2 – t 1 [A] Reaction rate = t [NO 2 ] For NO 2 , the rate of reaction = - t
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Rate of Reactions [NO 2 ] - = t - (2.2 x 10 -2 – 5.0 x 10 -2 ) M 100. s – 0 s 4 [NO 2 ] [NO] 5 = - (- 2.8 x 10 -4 M s -1 ) = 2.8 x 10 -4 M s -1 This is the average rate of the reaction within the first 100 seconds Unit of reaction rate 1 2 3 0 100 200 300 Time (s) [O 2 ]
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Rate of Reactions [NO] = t (2.8 x 10 -2 – 0) M 00. s s 3 4 [NO 2 ] [NO] 5 100. s – 0 s = 2.8 x 10 -4 M s -1 The same rate of NO 2 decomposition 1 2 0 100 200 300 Time (s) [O 2 ]
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Rate of Reactions [O 2 ] = t (1.4 x 10 -2 – 0) M 00. s s 3 4 [NO 2 ] [NO] 5 100. s – 0 s = 1.4 x 10 -4 M s -1 Half the rate of NO 2 decomposition 1 2 0 100 200 300 Time (s) [O 2 ]
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Rate of Reactions [NO 2 ] [NO] [O 2 ] 2NO 2 (g) 2NO (g) + O 2 (g) For the reaction: - = = 2 t 2 t t
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Rate of Reactions For a chemical reaction aA + bB cC + dD [A] [B] [C] [D] Rate of reaction = - = - = = a t b t c t d t
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terms of the disappearance of the reactants and the appearance of the products: 3O 2 (g) 2O 3 (g) [O 2 ] [O 3 ] Rate of reaction = - = 3 t 2 t the rate of disappearance of O 0.025 mol / L s, what is If the rate of disappearance of O 2 is 0.025 mol / L s, what is the rate of appearance of O 3 ? [O
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This note was uploaded on 05/12/2011 for the course CHEM 2 taught by Professor Sadsa during the Spring '11 term at Punjab Engineering College.

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ChemicalKinetics_5[1] - Introductory University Chemistry 2...

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