Coordination%20compds_Powerpoint[1]

Coordination%20compds_Powerpoint[1] - Transition Transition...

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Transition Elements, and Coordination Compounds
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Properties of transition elements 4 series of transition elements
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Introductions Unlike elements of the main groups, transition elements show: – Similar properties within a group – Similar properties within a period This is due to filling inner d-orbitals which do not participate in bonding.
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Transition elements are metals Main group elements change from metals to non-metals across a period Transition elements are metals (High melting point, hard metal)
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Electron configurations The physical properties of the transition elements are related to its electron configurations Ground state electron configuration for transition elements: [noble gas] ns 2 (n – 1) d x Fe is [Ar] 4s 2 3d 6
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4s Sc (Z = 21) Ti (Z = 22) V (Z = 23) Cr (Z = 24) Mn (Z = 25) 3d Half-filled d orbital is stable Zn (Z = 30) Fe (Z = 26) Co (Z = 27) Ni (Z = 28) Cu (Z = 29) Filled d orbital is stable
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Ions of transition elements Transition metal ions are formed through the loss of the ns electrons before the (n – 1) d electrons. Energy Atomic number 20 21 4s Ca Sc Energy of atomic orbitals as a function of atomic number 3d
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Variable of orbital energy with atomic number 2 nd cross-over for 3d orbital First cross-over for 3d orbital Energy Atomic number Hydrogen Transition elements
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Electron configuration of Fe 2+ is [Ar] 3d 6 , not [Ar] 4s 2 3d 4 Fe 4s 4s 3d 3d Fe 2+ What is the electron configuration of Cu + ? Cu [Ar] 4s 1 3d 10 Cu + [Ar] 3d 10
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Most transition elements have multiple oxidation states This is because both the ns and (n – 1) d electrons can take part in bonding. (2 types of valence electrons) Mn can form compounds with different oxidation states. Mn 2+ (+2), MnO 2 (+4), MnO 4 2- (+6), MnO 4 - (+7) Mn 2+ MnO 4 2- MnO 4 -
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Most compounds of the transition elements are colored The color of transition element compounds is due to excitation of electrons in partially filled d orbitals Ti Cr Fe Ni Zn Sc V Mn Co Cu
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Most transition elements and their compounds are paramagnetic Most main group metal ions are diamagnetic (all electrons are paired) Many transition metal compounds are paramagnetic (presence of unpaired d electrons)
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Transition elements form coordination compounds The most distinctive aspect of transition element chemistry is the formation of coordination compounds . For example: [Co(NH 3 ) 6 ] 3+ , [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3+
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Complex Ions and Coordination Compounds A covalent bond form between NH 3 and BH 3 : B H H H + N H H H B H H H N H H H The covalent bond is called a coordinate covalent bond. Electron pair is not shared but contributed by ammonia. NH 3 donates its electron pair and is called a Lewis base BH 3 accepts electron pair and is called a Lewis acid
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A coordination compound ( coordination complex ) contains a central metal cation (either a transition metal or a main-group metal) that is bonded to a number of molecules or anions called ligands (Latin: ‘to bind’).
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