Semester Notes

Semester Notes - Psychology 4070 Experimental studies...

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1-14-08 Psychology 4070 Experimental studies involve one behavior among many individuals Case studies involve a few people and their entire behavior Case study on John and Larry: Both grew up in an area of poverty and in broken homes then raised in matriarchal households then, Dropped out of school and both have criminal records. Often times what happens early on in life usually affects individuals later on in life. Stressors or environmental risk factors such as being in broken home, criminal records, and being out of school will often lead to being poor adults. John then fathered 2 children from 2 women without being married and spent time in prison. Larry on the other hand got an education, married with 2 children, and bought a home in a good area with his own business. He was also close to his maternal grandfather who was married with his own business and very happy. When individuals “beat the odds” of becoming products of their environmental factors is called resilience or invulnerable. It is the ability to spring back from adversity. Basic research searches for just data and answers. Applied research has real world applications like studying resilience. Information such as finding out what Larry had to make him resilience then give that to John. Three factors promotes resilience in children 1. Parental support- Warm parental relationship with at least one parent providing order, organization, affection and assistance. 2. Mentor support 3. Personal characteristics of the child (intelligence, religion, motivation). Personality is the individual tendency to act and behave the same in all situations. In helping individuals to change one important factor applies, in order to change the individual wants to change. However clinical counseling and parental affection training are very expensive and the parents must need to want to change as well. Mentors are generally volunteers and can be hard to come by. Theory- integrated principals that explain and predict why things occur Hypothesis- testable possible relationship, specific prediction what happens if theory is true Scientific method collects information impartially meaning without bias 1. Formulate a research question from previous studies or scientific observations (ex. Frustration aggressive study- frustrated people act aggressively)
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2. Develop a hypothesis 3. Test hypothesis- design/conduct experiment (unobtrusive observations in psychology) 4. Draw conclusions- does data support hypothesis or not 5. Publicize results-other scientist must evaluate and/or replicate Psychologists don’t control what’s studied as much as other scientist because they don’t have as much control over the items being tested. Therefore the accuracy isn’t quite as good with the hard science.
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