chpt_2cellnot

chpt_2cellnot - Chapter 2 The Cell Structure and Function...

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Chapter 2 The Cell Structure and Function Biomolecules Carbohydrates Lipids Amino Acids and Proteins Nucleotides Common Functional Groups in Biomolecules Molecules that contain carbon and hydrogen. TABLE 2.1 KNOW the 4 Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins & Nucleic Acids Know their monomers (basic repeating unit) their roles and how they differ Carbohydrates Organic molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. CH 2 0 Monosaccharide: C 6 H 12 O 6 Simple sugar Glucose, fructose, galactose Hydroxyl groups make carbs polar Disaccharide: 2 monosaccharides joined covalently. Sucrose, lactose, maltose Polysaccharide : Numerous monosaccharides joined covalently. Starch –plants store glucose, glycogen – humans store glucose: MUSCLES AND LIVER Lipids Diverse group of molecules.
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NO MONOMERS Insoluble in water Hydrophobic Consist primarily of hydrocarbon chains and rings. What is the function of fat in your body? Your ENERGY RESERVE ! (1 gram fat = 2X energy in 1 gram carbs) CLASS OF LIPIDS Triglycerides Phospholipids Eicosanoids Steroids Triglycerides = glycerol + 3 Fatty acids Glycerol = 3 C Alcohol Fatty Acid = Long Carbon Chain Acid saturated fatty acids unsaturated fatty acids Fatty acid chains make triglycerides hydrophobic Saturated Unsaturated No double bonds At least one double bond Solid at room temp Liquid at room temp Contributes to LDL or “bad” cholesterol Does not contribute to cholesterol Mostly animal origin Mostly plant in origin Ex: butter, bacon, fat Ex: olive oil, canola oil NOT: fish oils NOT : coconut or palm oil TRANS FATTY ACIDS H on opposite sides: H-C=C-H Found in hard margarine & baked goods
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Probably the worst fat for your body OTHER FATS Monosaturated Liquid at room temperatures Solidify in refrigerator Polyunsaturated Easily combine with O 2 Advantages of Olestra? Tastes good (fat based) Zero calories from fat Disadvantages of Olestra Undesirable side effects in some individuals Phospholipids amphipathic molecules Structures formed by phospholipids in aqueous molecules Eicosanoids Examples – prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes Steroids No fatty acid heads at all 4 rings Examples – estrogen, testosterone, aldosterone Cholesterol – 4 rings that all steroids are made from; basic steroid
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Need for hormones Source of cholesterol : food (you eat it) liver (you make it) Functions of cholesterol: -Important component of cell membranes
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This note was uploaded on 05/12/2011 for the course BIOL 2160 taught by Professor Kt during the Fall '08 term at LSU.

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chpt_2cellnot - Chapter 2 The Cell Structure and Function...

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