Chapter_7_neurons

Chapter_7_neurons - Chapter 7 Nerve Cells& Electric...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 7 Nerve Cells & Electric Signaling I. Organization of the Nervous System fig 7.1 II. Cells of the Nervous System – Neurons - – Glial cells – Classification of Neurons Functional: – Based upon direction impulses conducted. – Sensory or • Conduct impulses from receptors to CNS. – Motor or: • Conduct impulses out of CNS to effector. – Association or: • Located entirely within the CNS. Components of a Neuron – Soma • contains nucleus and most organelles – Dendrites • reception of incoming information – Axon • transmits electrical impulses called action potentials – Axon hillock • where axon originates and action potentials initiated – Axon terminal • releases neurotransmitter – Synapse: • space between a neuron & another cell Structure of Typical Neurons fig 7.2 Ion Channels in Neurons – Leak channels • • • Resting membrane potential – Ligand-gated channels • Open or close in response to • Dendrites & cell body • Synaptic potentials • – Voltage-gated channels • Open or close in response to – Sodium and potassium channels • throughout, but more in axon • action potentials – Calcium Channels • Axon terminal • Release of neurotransmitter • Functional Classes of Neurons fig 7.4 Glial Cells – Astrocytes – Ependymal Cells – Microglia – Oligodendrocytes – Schwann Cells Supporting Cells in CNS Astrocytes fig 9.4 Most – Vascular processes – Contribute to – Regulate – May secrete Development of Possibly modulate Remove NT from Communicate Maintain normal electrolyte composition of Protect neurons against Microglia Ependymal • Oligodendrocytes: • Found in • One oligodendrocyte: –...
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Chapter_7_neurons - Chapter 7 Nerve Cells& Electric...

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