Chapter 16 2160

Chapter 16 2160 - Respiratory System: Chapters 16 & 17...

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Respiration: Includes 6 separate functions: 1. Ventilation : breathing 2. Gas exchange: a. Between air and blood in the lungs (external b. Between blood and tissues (cell respiration) (internal) 3. 0 2 utilization: a. Cellular respiration 4. Homeostatic regulation of blood pH 5. 6. Vocalization Terminology - Inspiration : movement of air into lungs - Expiration : movement of air out of lungs - Conducting System: airways from nose to alveoli - Alveoli : functional unit where exchange of gases occurs in diffusion o Where external respiration actually occurs - Diaphragm & intercostals: major muscles in ventilation - Compliance : ability of lungs to stretch o Need them to stretch to bring in more oxygen (during exercise) External Respiration - Pulmonary ventilation - Exchange between lungs and blood - Transportation in blood - Exchange between blood and body tissues – Figure 16.1 External Respiration: Exchange Between Blood and Tissue Internal Respiration Upper Airways – Figure 16.2 - Uvula & epiglottis - Vocal cords o During quiet breathing, the vocal cords are near the sides of the larynx, and the glottis is open Respiratory Tract: Know pathway – Figure 16.2 - Uvula closes off the nasal pharynx - Epiglottis – closes off the trachea when you swallow so food goes down the esophagus (behind trachea) Functions of the Conducting Zone - Warm air to body temperature - Humidify air : mucus - Filter air : nasal hairs, cilia (except n alveoli) Epithelium of the Conducting Zone - Goblet cells – secret mucus - Ciliated cells – cilia move particles toward mouth; forms mucus escalator - Mucus escalator – trap dust and spit them out
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o People who smoke, smoking destroys the cilia, they are more likely to get disease, they get smoker’s cough because there is no cilia to bring up the mucus Structures of the Respiratory Zone – Figure16.5 - Respiratory bronchioles – Figure 16.6 - Alveoli - Alveolar sacs: rich capillary supply - Functional Unit o Exchange of gases between air and blood by diffusion Anatomy of Alveoli - Type I alveolar cells – make up wall of alveoli o Single layer epithelial cells o Structure - Type II alveolar cells – secrete o They are inside, they are furry o They secrete surfactant – mostly phospholipids and proteins - Alveolar macrophages o Gobble up any bacteria that get in o Respiratory membrane: 0.2 microns thick – thinnest membranes in the body Structures of the Thoracic Cavity - Pleura – double membrane lining of lungs and chest wall o Pleural sac around each lung o Intrapleural space filled with fluid o One layer is right next to the rib cage, the other is on the surface of the lungs – there is a space filled with fluid, this is so when the lungs expand they don’t rub against ribcage - Pleurisy o Chest feels heavy, labored breathing o There is so much fluid, the lungs can’t expand, put a hole between ribs and put a drain in and drain the fluid and
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This note was uploaded on 05/12/2011 for the course BIOL 2160 taught by Professor Kt during the Fall '08 term at LSU.

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Chapter 16 2160 - Respiratory System: Chapters 16 & 17...

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