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Chapter 18 2160

Chapter 18 2160 - Chapters 19 20 Urinary System Functions...

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Chapters 19 & 20: Urinary System Functions of the Urinary System - Homeostasis - They control electrolyte and water balance of the ECF, plus urinary output. o Kidneys eliminate excess H 2 O or electrolytes o Kidneys can reduce loss of H 2 O or electrolytes by reclaiming tem using hormonal action o If the ECF has an excess of water or electrolytes, the kidneys eliminate the excess. If there is a deficiency of these substances, the kidneys can reduce the loss of these from the body. Other Kidney Functions - Maintaining the proper osmolarity of body fluids - Maintaining proper plasma volume - Helping to maintain proper acid-base balance - Excreting metabolic wastes - Excreting many foreign compounds – drugs, something not made by the body - Producing EPO and renin (angiotenisin to angiotensin) - Converting Vitamin D to an active form Structures of the Urinary System – Figure 18.1 – know placement Urinary System - Kidneys – Retroperitoneal (behind the peritoneum); filter blood; form urine o Not in abdomen, outside the peritoneum o Location of Kidneys – no bone, only fat protection - Ureters – transport urine from kidneys to bladder - Bladder – store urine - Urethra – excrete urine from bladder to outside of body - Micturition = urination Anatomy of the Urinary Bladder and Urethra – Figure 18.21 Clinical Aspects UTIs= urinary tract infections - UTIs = urinary tract infections - Most often in o Short urethras o Urethra close to anus - Causes: Escherichia coli infections - Symptoms: pain or burning urination; frequent urination & blood in the urine - Prevention: o Wipe front to back o Pee after coitus (sex) o Drink plenty of fluids Macroscopic Anatomy of the Kidney know – Figure 18.2a Renal Pyramid – Figure 18.2b Anatomy of a Nephron KNOW Figure 18.3 - What comes in, the structures, what happens (goes in and out of the bloodstream), where it ends up - The tubular part of the nephron is a hollow tube with different regions. o Bowman’s capsule fits around the glomerulus o Filtered fluid from the Bowman’s capsule into proximal tubule In the cortex
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o Loop of Henle o The distal tubule empties into the collecting duct o The loop of Henle and collecting duct are in the kidney medulla - Fluid passes through it. Blood Supply to Kidney – Figure 18.6 - Renal artery delivers “dirty blood” … afferent arteriole Glomerulus efferent arteriole peritubular capillaries or vasa recta Renal vein leaves with the “clean blood” (double capillary network, glomerulus and peritubular capillaries) Basic Renal Processes – Figure 18.7 - Glomerular filtration – from glomerulus Bowman’s capsule - Reabsorption – from proximal tubules peritubular capillaries o Back to the bloodstream o Conserving - Secretion – from peritubular capillaries distal tubules o Leaves the bloodstream and goes back into the nephron to form urine - Excretion
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