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Chapter_15_blood_notes - Chapter 15 Blood Overview of Blood...

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Chapter 15 Blood Overview of Blood Blood = vehicle for transport Average blood volume Women = 5.0 L Men = 5.5 L Components of blood Plasma Erythrocytes (RBCs) Leukocytes (WBCs) Platelets Nonprotein Nitrogenous Substances Molecules containing nitrogen but are not proteins Urea – product of protein catabolism; about 50% of NPN substances Uric acid – product of nucleic acid catabolism Amino acids – product of protein catabolism Creatine – stores phosphates Creatinine – product of creatine metabolism BUN – blood urea nitrogen; indicate health of kidney Blood: Erythrocytes RBCs – red blood cells Transports oxygen and carbon dioxide Leukocytes WBCs– white blood cells Defend body against pathogens Platelets – cell fragments Important in blood clotting Plasma – fluid and solutes Measuring the Hematocrit Centrifuge blood sample Measure components as % by volume Plasma = 55-58% Erythrocytes = 42-45% Buffy Coat = <1% Leukocytes & platelets Hematocrit = % packed erythrocytes Men = 42-52 Women = 37-47 Polycythemia: excess RBCs % ↑hematocrit thick blood Plasma
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Straw-colored liquid. Consists of H 2 0 and dissolved solutes. Ions, metabolites, hormones, antibodies. Na + = major solute of the plasma Relatively low concentrations of H + , HCO 3 - , K + , and Ca 2+ Wastes: urea, bilirubin (makes urine yellow) , creatinine Table on plasma proteins Erythrocytes Flattened biconcave discs. Provides increased surface area through which gas can diffuse Lack nuclei (DNA & RNA) and mitochondria Half-life ~ 120 days Old cells destroyed in spleen and liver Erythropoiesis : Formation of RBCs Occurs in marrow due to erythropoietin Manmade = procrit, EPO Need iron, vitamin B 12 and folic acid for synthesis RBCs RBC Production Low blood oxygen causes kidneys and liver to release e RBC Life Cycle – circulate for about 120 days o
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Chapter_15_blood_notes - Chapter 15 Blood Overview of Blood...

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