Chapter_23_immune_System

Chapter_23_immune_System - Chapter 23 notes : Immune System...

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Chapter 23 notes : Immune System B Cells B cells associated with antibodies B cell contacts antigen plasma cell Plasma cell secretes antibodies (immunoglobulins) Antibodies mark invaders for destruction T Cells Directly damage foreign cells T cells contact infected, mutant or transplanted cells Develop into cytotoxic T cells that destroy target cell Takes several days Secretory products form pores in target cell membrane Lysis Null Cells Most are natural killer cells Important against viral infections Attack virus-infected cells – cause lysis Fast acting – early immune response Act in a non-specific manner Central Lymphoid Tissue Bone marrow Hematopoietic stem cells : precursor for all blood cells Leukocytes except T lymphocytes fully develop Thymus T lymphocytes migrate from bone marrow to thymus Develop maturity in thymus Function of Peripheral Lymphoid Tissue Trap microorganisms and foreign particles Expose them to leukocytes in high Concentrations Spleen and Lymph Nodes Filter blood and lymph Tonsils and Adenoids Trap inhaled particles Appendix and Peyer’s Patches Trap ingested particles Nonspecific Defenses External Defenses Physical Barriers
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Skin Mucous membranes: eyes, nose, vagina Mucus Chemical Barriers Secretions from sebaceous and sweat glands pH = 3-5 Sebaceous glands secrete oily substance into hair follicles Cerumen: ears Nonspecific Immunity:Cellular Bacterial carbohydrates flag the cell for phagocytic attack. 2 major groups of phagocytic cells: Neutrophils : 1 st to arrive at infection. Short lived Macrophages and monocytes. “Big Eaters” Long lived Toll Like Receptors: TLR = pattern recognition receptors Recognize specific pathogenic molecules TRL3 on endocytic vesicles recognizes viral double stranded RNA TRL4 on cell membranes recognized lipopolysaccharides on bacterial cell walls Inflammatory Response Non-specific response in tissue space Histamine released from mast cells causes: Release of Tissue Necrosis Factor α Leaky capillaries swelling Increased blood flow to the area pain Increased in macrophages to engulf invaders pus – depends on the infection Warns of injury/infection May stimulate release of pyrogens fever Five Steps of Inflammation fig 23.2 Macrophages engulf debris and foreign matter Capillaries dilate and become more permeable Foreign matter contained More leukocytes migrate to area Leukocytes clear infection Inflammatory Response Fig 23.2
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Containment of Foreign Matter Mast cells and basophils heparin : blood thinner Prevents clot formation initially so blood cells can access area Clotting factors eventually form clot in tissue, prevents spread of foreign matter
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This note was uploaded on 05/12/2011 for the course BIOL 2160 taught by Professor Kt during the Fall '08 term at LSU.

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Chapter_23_immune_System - Chapter 23 notes : Immune System...

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