Respiratory_System_Chapters_16

Respiratory_System_Chapters_16 - Respiratory System...

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Unformatted text preview: Respiratory System Chapters 16 & 17 Respiration : Includes 6 separate functions: 1. Ventilation: Breathing 2. Gas exchange: between air and blood in the lungs (external) between blood and tissues (cell respiration) 3. 2 utilization: Cellular respiration 4. Homeostatic regulation of blood pH 5. Protection from inhaled pathogens & irritants 6. Vocalization Terminology Inspiration : movement of air into lungs Expiration : movement of air out of lungs Conducting System: airways from nose to alveoli Alveoli : functional unit where exchange of gases occurs by diffusion Diaphragm & intercostals: major muscles in ventilation Compliance: ability of lungs to stretch External Respiration Pulmonary ventilation Exchange between lungs and blood Transportation in blood Exchange between blood and body tissues fig 16.1 External Respiration: Exchange Between Blood and Tissue Internal Respiration Upper Airways fig 16.2 Uvula & epiglottis closes off the trachea when you swallow Vocal cords Respiratory Tract : Know pathway fig 16.2 Functions of the Conducting Zone Warm air to body temperature Humidify air: mucus Filter air: nasal hairs, cilia ( except in alveoli) Epithelium of the Conducting Zone Goblet cells secret mucus Ciliated cells cilia move particles toward mouth Mucus escalator Structures of the Respiratory Zone fig 16.5 Respiratory bronchioles fig 16.6 Alveoli Alveolar sacs: rich capillary supply Functional Unit o Exchange of gases between air and blood by diffusion Anatomy of Alveoli Type I alveolar cells make up; actual structure o Single layer epithelial cells Type II alveolar cells secrete surfactant Alveolar macrophages o Ingest bacteria that may get in Respiratory membrane: 0.2 microns thick Structures of the Thoracic Cavity Pleura double membrane lining of lungs and chest wall o Pleural sac around each lung o Intrapleural space filled with fluid Pleurisy: infection causing shortness of breath & drowning feeling o Heavy chest o Labored breathing Chest Wall and Pleural Sac Pneumothorax fig 16.9 Atmospheric Pressure: 7 60 mm Hg at sea level Decreases as altitude increases o Increases under water o Other lung pressures given relative to atmospheric Muscles of Respiration Inspiratory muscles increase volume of thoracic cavity o Diaphragm o External intercostals Expiratory muscles decrease volume of thoracic cavity o Internal intercostals o Abdominal muscles o Forcibly exhale air Expiration is generally passive (no muscles required) Inspiration and Expiration...
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This note was uploaded on 05/12/2011 for the course BIOL 2160 taught by Professor Kt during the Fall '08 term at LSU.

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Respiratory_System_Chapters_16 - Respiratory System...

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