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Earth_materials_2 - Rock types are distinguished by their...

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Rock types are distinguished by their origin Yosemite Valley, CA Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic
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1. Igneous rocks formed by solidification (cooling) of magma intrusive igneous rocks extrusive igneous rocks
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Lava flows in Hawaii This lava solidifies to form basalt
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Properties of rocks important for environmental geology: Strength Texture the arrangement and size of mineral grains Porosity amount of open pore space Permeability ability of fluid to move through material Structure
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Textures in igneous rocks Interlocking texture – common in many igneous rocks; also occurs in some metamorphic rocks and some sedimentary rocks. Note that there is almost no open pore space with this texture.
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Interlocking texture in igneous rock Coarse grain size in intrusive igneous rocks Granite counter-top
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Volcanic rocks have fine grain size because of rapid solidification Some volcanic rocks have vesicular texture (this reduces strength) Extremely rapid cooling results in glass Obsidian
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2. Sedimentary rocks
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