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Intellectual_Impairments_DD (1) - & Intellectual...

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Intellectual Impairments  & Developmental Disabilities Intellectual Disabilities Mental Retardation Mental Disability
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Readings & Videos http://www.nichcy.org/Disabilities/ Specific/Pages/IntellectualDisability .aspx LA Bulletin 1508 – pages 28-30 http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/dd/dd mr.htm
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Thought Questions What is intelligence? Is intelligence the same as “smarts”? Why is intelligence level a focus of American Society?
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Intelligence General Mental Capacity Ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly, & learn from experience What is measured by IQ tests
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Intelligence Some known influences: genetic make-up (inheritance plays some role); degree and nature of verbal interaction & creative play birth to age 3 or 4 environmental stimuli; nutrition Fairly static across lifetime – does increase somewhat over time Can decrease due to head trauma or results of disease that kills brain cells or destroy neurological systems
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Intelligence - Definitions Having good sense, practical sense, adapt to circumstances, (Binet & Simon 1916) Global capacity to act purposefully, think rationally & deal with environment (Weschler, 1939) Large number of interconnected but distinct abilities (Thurston, 1940s) Ability to learn from experience, solve problems through insight, adjust to new situations, achieve desired goals (Groth & Marnat, 1997)
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Assessment of Intelligence Tests Binet – Simon Tests – 1 st Version 1905 Coined term “mental age” Stanford-Binet (Terman) -1 st Version 1916 Coined term “intelligence quotient” or IQ IQ = mental age/chronological age X 100 Weshler Intellectual Scale for Children – 1 st version 1949 Most common test used today Average IQ = range from 85 to 115 with Mean at 100 Below Average IQ – less than 70 GT = above 130
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IQ Calculation  ID Examples Average: MA = 8; CA = 8; IQ = 100 Mild MR: MA = 7; CA = 10; IQ = 70 Mild MR: MA = 7; CA = 11; IQ = 63 Mild/Moderate MR: MA = 7; CA = 14; IQ = 50 Moderate MR: MA = 3; CA = 8; IQ = 38 Moderate/Severe MR: MA = 5; CA = 16; IQ = 31 Severe MR: MA = 3; CA = 12; IQ = 25 Profound MR: MA = 3; CA 18; IQ = 16
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IQ Calculation  GT Examples Average: MA = 8; CA = 8; IQ = 100 2 SD above Mean: MA = 6.5; CA = 5; IQ = 130 MA =10; CA = 7; IQ = 142 MA =12; CA = 8; IQ = 150 MA =6.4; CA = 4; IQ = 160 MA = 12.8; CA = 8; IQ = 160 MA = 24; CA = 13; IQ = 185
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Assessment of Intelligence Past Purposes Binet-Simon – Educational Placement Terman- identification of undesirables or uneducable – removal of such citizens from general population through institutionalization & sterilization Current Purposes Assessment of ability/potential – strengths & weaknesses Current cognitive functioning Predictor of academic achievement
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