Cuba - Crossroads of the Empires Conquered in 1511, Cuba s...

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Crossroads of the Empires
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Conquered in 1511, Cuba’s Tainos were wiped out by the 1700s. Military, Clergy, and Colonial Administrators dominated the Island. Sugar, Tobacco (Native to the Island) and later coffee were the basis of the economy. Cuba resembled most Caribbean islands, but with a larger European-descent population (37 %)
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1515: Havana founded on the southern coast of the island in by Conquistador Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar. 1519: Havana moved to its present location. 1607: Havana made the capital of the colony of Cuba 1762: British sack and capture Cuba.
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Under Charles III, Cuba’s economy expanded. Early 19 th c.: Coffee boom, followed by expansion of the tobacco industry. Due to the decline in sugar production in Hispaniola, Cuba became the Caribbean’s leading sugar producer. Cuba produced nearly a third of the world’s sugar supply. Slavery expanded during a century when abolition movements were common elsewhere in Latin America. 600,000 enslaved Africans were taken to Cuba.
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Jose Antonio Aponte was identified as the ringleader of several spontaneous revolts known collectively as the Aponte Rebellion erupted across the island of Cuba, comprising one of the largest and most important slave insurrections in Caribbean history. Cabildos de nacion and the free-black militias – provided spaces for developing of identity, confidence, political ideas. Authorities found portraits of Toussaint L’Ouverture, Jean- Jacques Dessalines, Cristophe, and George Washington in Aponte’s possession. The rebellion reinforced criollo loyalty to Spain.
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1844-45: Slaves and free blacks conspire to overthrow the government and abolish slavery. Thousands of slaves and free blacks were tied to ladders (escaleras) and whipped in an attempt to force them to confess. Officials blamed the free-black former militia soldier, Jose Herrera, for inciting the riot They believed that he had been involved in the Aponte rebellion. Cuban officials also suspected the involvement of the abolitionist David Turnbull, British consul at the time.
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Two famous free blacks were among those executed in the conspiracy: The Cuban poet of African descent, Gabriel de la Concepción Valdés was the most famous victim. Little evidence was presented in his conviction. Juan Francisco Manzano, author of Autobiography of a Slave (1837), also was suspected of participation in the revolt and imprisoned.
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1840: Cuba’s sugar economy had grown to make it the wealthiest colony in the world. 1860: Cuba produced nearly 1/3 of the world’s sugar. 1928: American mills controlled 75 % of Cuba’s sugar production. 1830s: Campaign was
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Cuba - Crossroads of the Empires Conquered in 1511, Cuba s...

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