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Independent_Latin_America_1825-1850_1_

Independent_Latin_America_1825-1850_1_ - During the Period...

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During the Period of Independence, Spain retained Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippine Islands Cuba: “The Ever Faithful Isle” 1762: Spain had temporarily lost Havana. 1810s and 1820s: Spanish exiles from the mainland consolidated loyalty. Cuba’s stability contributed to the improving economic conditions Haitian uprising destroyed Hispaniola’s economy and led to Cuba’s competitive edge. Sugar exports tripled in 25 years, coffee grew, tobacco had free markets permitted.
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Liberals, Conservatives, Caudillos, and Chaos
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South America Divided: South America Divided: Bolivar’s Broken Dream Bolivar’s Broken Dream Simon Bolivar in 1830 "America is ungovernable. Those who have served the revolution have plowed the sea." Credited to Simón Bolívar shortly before his death in 1830. Shortly after Independence, the South American colonies began to fragment into separate nations. The dream of a united continent is still an elusive goal.
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Caudillos were strongmen in power in the absence of strong government. The caudillo's power base was his landholdings, the local militia, and loyalty from the lower classes who depended on him for work and protection. The best known caudillos included Juan Manuel de Rosas of Argentina, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna of Mexico, and Rafael Carrera of Guatemala. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
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Race and Caudillos Before independence, Latin America was ruled by creoles or peninsulares of Spanish descent. By taking advantage of the disruptions in the social order and their rapid ascent to power through military prowess, many caudillos who were mestizos or of African descent came to power such as Vicente Guerrero and Jose Maria Morelos of Mexico, Rafael Carrera of Guatemala, and Jose Antonio Paez of Venezuela.
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Conservatives wanted centralized power, caste-based social distinctions, and a powerful church, and strong military. They looked for return to Spanish colonial past. Liberals wanted a more modern capitalist economy, disestablished churches, public schools They looked to Europe as source of modern ideas. Most Liberals and Conservatives both came from an elite creole background
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Conflicts Facing the New Nations 1). Chronic Political Instability 2). Economic Stagnation 3). Active role of military in political life. 4). Emergence of Political Parties a). Conservatives: Centralists. b). Liberals: Federalists
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Latin America fragmented into much smaller units and was plagued by civil war. Argentina, Mexico, and other centers of independence activity did not make smooth transitions away from Political stability remained elusive. Debt to foreign nations plagued newly independent Latin America. Industrialization took place at a much slower pace
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1825-1828: Cisplatine War: Brazil vs. Argentina 1828-30: Gran Colombia vs.
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