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Mexico_Day_1_1_ - Mexico 1810-1910 Mexico Siglo de...

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Mexico, 1810-1910 Mexico, 1810-1910 Siglo de Caudillos Siglo de Caudillos
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The Brief and Not-Too-Wondrous Rule of Emperor Iturbide February 1821: Royalist General Iturbide switches sides Mexico gains independence. September 1821: Iturbide’s troops rebel forces under Vicente Guerrero and Guadalupe Victoria occupy Mexico City. May 18, 1822: Iturbide’s troops demand his coronation as Emperor Agustin I. July 1822: Iturbide’s Coronation. October 31, 1822: Iturbide dissolves Congress. December 1, 1822: Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna declares Mexico a republic. Vicente Guerrero and Guadalupe Victoria rebel. 1 February 1823: Iturbide surrenders to Santa Anna. 1823: Exile in Italy 14 July 1824: Returns to Mexico. 19 July 1824: Executed by firing squad
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Post-Independence Problems Massive Debt Foreign Intervention Struggles between Liberals and Conservatives Separatist movements Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Political Instability Lorenzo de Zavala, Mexican independence leader who sided with Texas separatists.
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Post-Independence Chaos: Economic Aftermath of Independence Silver mines flooded, machinery was destroyed and neglected. Residences, farms, and domestic businesses had been destroyed. 1820s: Economic recovery began with British assistance. 1830s and 1840s: Internal economy improved. Local improvement did not benefit the weak national government. US began to encroach on Britain’s status as a major trading partner.
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Liberal vs. Conservative Liberals and Conservatives both mistrusted the lower classes Both supported intermarriage with Europeans. Desire for immigrants led to invitations of Irish and Anglo-Americans to settle in parts of Mexico including Texas. Liberals blamed Spanish colonial rule for poverty and decline of indigenous population from pre-Cortesian glory; Conservatives based their opinions in a more racist analysis. Masonic lodges and secret societies that conspired against Spanish rule kept politics secretive. York rite lodges emerged as liberals’ party, conservatives participated in Scottish rite lodges. Liberals leaned toward a federalist system; Centralism was supported by Conservatives.
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Centrifugal Forces in Mexico Regional autonomy became a major demand of those who revolted against Iturbide Santa Anna proclaimed the Plan of Casa Mata, which called for the election of a new congress. It emphasized reasonable provincial home rule. Importance of Patria Chica 1823: Central America (except Chiapas) broke away to form the United Provinces of Central America.
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Mexico in 1823
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Mexico in 1853
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Separatist Rebellions Texas: Protestant immigrants became a majority. 1829 emancipation decree enraged Texans. 1830 law prohibited further immigration from the United States.
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