Bolivia_-_From_Caudillos_To_Evo

Bolivia_-_From_Caudillos_To_Evo - Bolivia From Silver to...

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5/16/11 Bolivia From Silver to Lithium
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5/16/11 Mineral-Based Economy Potosi’s Colonial Economy was based on mining of silver. Late 19th & early 20th c.: Tin became the most important export. The future: 50 % of the world’s lithium, essential for batteries, is found in Bolivia
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5/16/11 Colonial Potosi
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5/16/11 Background: Wounded Nationalism War of the Pacific (1879-83) Dispute between Bolivia and Chile over nitrate-rich Antofagasta. Bolivian politicians rallied Bolivians by blaming the war on Chilean aggression. Mining entrepreneurs, the core of the Conservative party, favored a quick peace with Chile including indemnification for lost territories and a railroad for mining exports.
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5/16/11 Lost Territory, 1867-1938
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5/16/11 Rough Start to a New Century 1900-03: Brazilian rubber gatherers won annexation by Brazil after three years of skirmishes. 1904: Bolivia signed treaty with Chile ceding coast territory Chile paid an indemnification of $8.5 million The presidency and the Congress were moved to La Paz, which became the de facto capital, but the Supreme Court of Justice remained in Sucre.
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5/16/11 The Rise of Tin,1890s-1929 La Paz eclipsed Potosí as mining center. Tin production was concentrated in the hands of Bolivian nationals Foreign interests and Bolivians with foreign associations took the major share. Simón Patiño, of poor mestizo background, was the most successful tin magnate. 1924: Patiño owned 50 % of the national production and controlled the European refining of Bolivian tin. He resided in Europe. 1920s: Carlos Aramayo and Mauricio Hochschild, resided primarily in Bolivia.
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5/16/11 The Chaco War 1932: Bolivia and Paraguay both claimed the Chaco region, the site of some oil discoveries. Border incidents led to broken diplomatic relations and then war. President Daniel Salamanca (1931–34) believed that the German-trained Bolivian army would defeat Paraguay. Paraguay won all the major battles and drove Bolivian forces nearly 500 kilometers back into the Andes. Bolivia suffered nearly 65,000 deaths and lost the Chaco region.
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5/16/11 Prelude to MNR: “Military Socialism” May 17, 1936: Colonel David Toro Ruilova (1936- 37) took power in a military coup.
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Bolivia_-_From_Caudillos_To_Evo - Bolivia From Silver to...

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