Peru - Peru Peru Keeping the Kleptocrats at Bay...

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Peru Peru Keeping the Kleptocrats at Bay Keeping the Kleptocrats at Bay
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Independence in Peru "Peru's role in the drama of Latin American independence was largely that of an interested spectator until the final act." David P. Werlich, Peru: A Short History
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Independence from Without Independence from Without September 1820: San Martín’s army lands in Pisco. Mid-1822: Meeting at Guayaquil. August 1824: Bolívar wins Battle of Junín. December 9, 1824: General Antonio José de Sucre Alcalá defeats royalist forces near Huamanga (modern-day Ayacucho). 1824: Independence completed; a foreign imposition rather than a popular movement.
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Junín and Junín and Ayacucho Ayacucho
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From Crown Rule to Caudillo Control From Crown Rule to Caudillo Control Instability,1821-1845: Constitution rewritten six times; 24 regime changes. a particularly virulent form of Andean caudillismo. Leading caudillos: 1829-34: General Agustín Gamarra (conservative) 1834-35: General Luis de Orbegoso 1835-36: General Felipe Salaverry
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Peru-Bolivia Confederation, Peru-Bolivia Confederation, 1836-39 1836-39 1836: General Andrés de Santa Cruz y Calahumana marched into Peru to impose the Peru- Bolivia Confederation. Great Britain, France, and the United States recognized the confederation. 1837: Santa Cruz' forces defeated an Argentine army. Jan. 20, 1839: Battle of Yungay: Chileans led by Gen. Manuel Bulnes (joined by Peruvians opposed to Santa Cruz) defeated the confederation.
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Guano to the Rescue, 1841 Guano to the Rescue, 1841 1841: First shipment of Guano to Liverpool. Magnus Mörner: “Guano wealth ... a developmental opportunity missed.” 1845-1870: Peru exported 12 million tons of guano to Europe and North America. stimulated the commercial agricultural revolution. Flow of revenue: nearly US $500 million. 1840s: Guano-led growth averaged 9 % per year.
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Ramón Castilla and Ramón Castilla and Enforced Stability Enforced Stability General Marshal Ramón Castilla (1845-51, 1854-62). Major reforms: retired the internal and external debt and brought financial stability to the government. Submitted 1 st national budget to congress. Built railroad from Lima to Callao. Modernized military. 1854: Slavery and the contribucion de indigenas abolished.
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Little Wars, Big Wars: Little Wars, Big Wars: Spain, Ecuador, and Chile Spain, Ecuador, and Chile 1859-60: War with Ecuador over disputed Amazonian territory (Result: Stalemate) 1864-66: Peru (also Ecuador, Bolivia, and Chile) had to fight Spain to assert their independence. (Result: Peru wins) 1866: Spain claims guano-rich Pacific Island. 1869: Spain recognizes Peru’s independence. 1879-83: Peru and Bolivia fight Chile in War of the Pacific (Result: Peru loses)
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War of the Pacific War of the Pacific Disputed, nitrate-rich Atacama Desert became more important after Peru’s guano reserves depleted.
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