Ch_6 - 4/5/11 Popula)on
and
Society

 Chapter
6


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Unformatted text preview: 4/5/11 Popula)on
and
Society

 Chapter
6
 Internal
Migra)on

 1
 Internal
Migra)on
 •  Migra)on
is
the
third
way
in
which
popula)ons
 change
their
size.
Migra)on
may
occur
to
us
on
 mul)ple
occasions,
or
we
may
never
experience
 migra)on.
 •  There
are
two
main
types
of
migra)on
 –  Internal
migra)on
occurs
within
a
country
 –  Interna)onal
migra)on
occurs
between
countries
 •  Internal
migra)on
is
the
change
of
permanent
 residence
within
a
country
that
involves
a
 geographical
move
that
crosses
a
poli)cal
 boundary,
usually
a
county.
 2
 1 4/5/11 Internal
Migra)on
 •  Not
all
changes
in
residence,
however,
are
 migra)ons.
 –  A
mover
is
anyone
who
changes
residence
regardless
 of
distance
 –  A
migrant
is
a
person
whose
residen)al
move
involves
 the
crossing
of
a
poli)cal
boundary.

 –  All
migrants
are
movers,
but
all
movers
are
not
 necessarily
migrants.
 •  Migra)on
is
not
only
a
significant
event
for
 persons,
but
for
the
sending
and
receiving
 community
as
well.

 –  Migra)on
is
the
major
method
for
redistribu)ng
the
 popula)on
within
a
country
 3
 Internal
Migra)on
 •  Each
year
about
1
in
5
Americans
moves
from
one
 house
to
another;
1
in
14
migrates
from
one
county
 to
another.
About
half
of
these
migrants
move
 from
one
state
to
another.

 –  Americans
average
about
13
changes
of
residence,
 and
4
migra)ons,
during
their
life)mes.

 •  The
geographic
mobility
rates
in
the
United
States
 are
comparable
to
those
in
Canada
and
Australia,
 but
are
much
higher
than
those
in
many
other
 developed
countries
like
Sweden,
Ireland,
and
 Japan,
likely
due
to
the
smaller
geographic
size
of
 these
countries.


 4
 2 4/5/11 Concepts
and
Defini)ons
 •  Local
movement
is
the
short‐distance
change
of
 residence
within
the
same
community
that
does
 not
involve
crossing
a
county
jurisdic)onal
 boundary.

 •  Migra)on
is
the
geographical
movement
of
a
 permanent
change
of
residence
that
involves
the
 crossing
of
a
county
boundary.

 –  A
migrant
leaves
his/her
community
and
moves
to
a
 new
community
and
changes
school,
job,
etc.

 –  Local
movement,
usually
does
not
involve
changing
 the
main
ins)tu)ons
in
the
mover’s
daily
life.

 –  A
migra)on,
but
not
necessarily
a
local
movement,
is
a
 sociological
event
of
major
magnitude.
 5
 Internal
Migra)on

 •  Unlike
the
U.S.,
in
China
and
North
Korea
 migra)on
is
)ghtly
controlled
 –  Temporary
versus
permanent
migrant
 •  In‐migra)on
refers
to
the
residen)al
migra)on
 of
persons
to
an
area
of
des)na)on;
and
out‐ migra)on
refers
to
the
migra)on
of
persons
 from
an
area
of
origin.

 •  The
area
of
origin
is
the
area
or
community
 from
which
a
migrant
departs,
and
the
area
of
 des)na)on
is
the
area
or
community
into
 which
a
migrant
enters.
 6
 3 4/5/11 Internal
Migra)on
 •  Return
migra)on
is
the
migra)on
of
persons
 back
to
their
area
of
origin
at
some
)me
aYer
 their
ini)al
out‐migra)on.

 •  Net
migra)on
refers
to
the
migra)on
balance
 of
an
area,
consis)ng
of
the
number
of
in‐ migrants
minus
the
number
of
out‐migrants;

 – The
net
balance
may
be
posi)ve
(represen)ng
a
 net
popula)on
gain
to
the
area)
or
nega)ve
 (represen)ng
a
net
loss)
or,
conceivably,
zero.

 7
 Internal
Migra)on

 •  Gross
migra)on
is
the
sum
total
of
migra)on
 for
an
area
and
is
comprised
of
the
in‐ migra)on
into
the
area
plus
the
out‐migra)on
 from
the
area.
 •  Migra)on
efficiency
is
an
area’s
net
migra)on
 divided
by
its
gross
migra)on.

 –  Li_le
out‐migra)on
and
more
in‐migra)on
is
 posi)vely
efficient.

 –  Li_le
in‐migra)on
and
a
lot
of
out‐migra)on
is
 nega)vely
efficient.
 8
 4 4/5/11 Concepts
and
Defini)ons
 •  Migra)on
is
not
effec)ve
for
an
area
when
 there
are
about
the
same
numbers
of
persons
 migra)ng
into
the
area
as
there
are
persons
 migra)ng
out
of
the
area
 –  High
nega)ve
migra)on
efficiency
characterizes
 areas
of
economic
hardship,
whereas
high
posi)ve
 efficiency
is
oYen
found
in
areas
experiencing
 economic
expansion.
 9
 Concepts
and
Defini)ons

 •  A
migra)on
stream
is
a
body
of
migrants
 depar)ng
from
a
common
area
of
origin
and
 arriving
at
a
common
area
of
des)na)on
during
a
 specified
)me
interval.

 •  A
migra)on
counterstream
is
the
migra)on
 stream,
smaller
in
size,
going
in
the
opposite
 direc)on
during
the
same
)me
interval.

 •  A
migra)on
interval
refers
to
the
)me
period
 during
which
the
migra)on
occurs.

 –  Time
intervals
of
one
year,
five
years,
or
ten
years,
are
 common
intervals
used
in
demographic
studies
of
 internal
migra)on.

 10
 5 4/5/11 Concepts
and
Defini)ons
 •  Differen0al
migra0on
refers
to
the
study
of
 differences
in
migra)on
according
to
the
 demographic,
social,
and
economic
 characteris)cs
of
the
popula)on.

 –  This
is
also
known
as
migra)on
selec)vity
and
points
 to
the
fact
that
some
persons
are
more
likely
to
 migrate
than
others.

 –  The
strongest
selec)vity
factor
associated
with
both
 migra)on
and
local
movement
is
age.
There
is
also
 selec)vity
based
on
level
of
educa)on,
and
 homeownership.

 11
 Measures
of
Migra)on
 •  Migra)on
is
difficult
to
study
because
of
the
 lack
of
registra)on
data
in
the
U.S.

 •  The
U.S.
census
of
popula)on
contains
two
 useful
items
that
demographers
use
to
 measure
migra)on:
 –  State
of
birth,
and
the
place
of
residence
five
 years
prior
to
the
census.

 •  The
census
ques)ons
permit
the
dis)nc)on
 between
nonmigrants
(or
na)ves)
and
life)me
 migrants

 12
 6 4/5/11 Measures
of
Migra)on
 •  Measures
of
migra)on
are
usually
developed
as
rates
that
 show
empirically
the
rela)ve
frequency
that
a
certain
kind
 of
migra)on
occurs.
 –  –  –  –  –  In‐migra)on
Rate
=
(I
/
P)
*
1000
 Out‐migra)on
Rate
=
(O
/
P)
*
1000
 Net
Migra)on
Rate
=
[(I
‐
O)
/
P]
*
1000
 Gross
Migra)on
Rate
=
[(I
+
O)
/
P]
*
1000
 Migra)on
Efficiency
Ra)o
=
[(I
‐
O)
/
(I
+
O)]
*
100
 
where:
 –  I
refers
to
the
number
of
in‐migrants
moving
into
an
area
during
 a
certain
)me
interval
(usually
1
or
5
or
10
years);
 –  O
refers
to
the
number
of
out‐migrants
moving
out
of
an
area
 during
a
certain
)meinterval;
and
 –  P
is
the
denominator
and
refers
to
the
midyear
or
average
size
 of
the
popula)on
of
the
area.

 13
 
 

 Measures
of
Migra)on
 •  Demographers
usually
use
as
the
denominator
 for
all
migra)on
rates
the
resident
popula)on
of
 the
area
for
which
the
rate
is
being
calculated.
 •  As
shown
above,
the
four
rates
are
usually
 mul)plied
by
a
constant
of
1,000,
and
the
 migra)on
efficiency
ra)o
by
a
constant
of
100.
 •  Table
6.1
presents
domes)c
migra)on
data
for
 the
four
states
of
California,
Nevada,
New
York,
 and
Texas,
for
the
period
of
1995
to
2000.

 14
 7 4/5/11 Table 6.1. 15
 Measures
of
Migra)on
 •  Of
all
the
states
in
the
U.S.
Nevada,
reported
the
 highest
posi)ve
net
migra)on
rates,
151.5.

 –  Nevada
reported
the
highest
posi)ve
efficiency
ra)o
of
 33.5
 •  New
York
had
one
of
the
largest
nega)ve
net
migra)on
 rates,
losing
nearly
49
persons
during
the
1995‐2000
 period
for
every
1,000
members
of
its
popula)on.
 •  The
state
with
the
largest
nega)ve
net
migra)on
rate
 of
all
the
U.S.
states
(not
shown
in
the
table)
was
 Hawaii,
with
an
NMR
of
‐65.4.

 •  The
District
of
Columbia
had
an
even
larger
nega)ve
 net
migra)on
rate
of
‐81.7
 16
 8 4/5/11 Theories
of
Internal
Migra)on
 •  Migra)on
does
not
have
the
biological
or
gene)c
 components
that
are
found
in
the
study
of
 mortality
and
fer)lity;
migra)on
is
due
en)rely
to
 environmental
and
personal
factors.

 •  The
ques)on
of
who
migrates
depends
in
large
 part
on
what
are
referred
to
as
“push”
and
“pull”
 factors.

 –  Push
factors
from
an
area
can
be
job
loss,
 discrimina)on,
availability
of
partners,
community
 characteris)cs,
catastrophes,
etc.

 –  Pull
factors
to
an
area
can
be
be_er
employment,
 educa)on,
climate
,
living
condi)ons,
etc
 17
 Theories
of
Migra)on
 •  Migrants
who
respond
mainly
to
pull
factors
 tend
to
be
“posi)vely”
selected
 –  Their
departure
oYen
lowers
the
level
of
 educa)on
and
skill
of
their
place
of
origin
 •  Migrants
who
respond
mainly
to
push
factors
 tend
to
be
“nega)vely”
selected

 –  They
may
oYen
have
less
likelihood
of
success
 because
of
low
educa)on
or
skill,
therefore
their
 out‐migra)on
posi)vely
affects
their
place
of
 origin
 18
 9 4/5/11 Theories
of
Migra)on
 •  There
is
more
to
migra)on
than
simply
 calcula)ng
the
advantages
and
disadvantages
of
 their
move.

 •  There
are
also
intervening
obstacles
that
must
be
 considered.

 –  Such
as
distance
and
physical
barriers.

 •  The
pushes
and
pulls
are
thus
evaluated
in
light
 of
the
costs
of
overcoming
the
intervening
 obstacles.
 19
 Theories
of
Migra)on
 •  The
main
theore)cal
models
seek
to
explain
 internal
migra)on
in
terms
of
(1)
the
effects
of
 distance,
(2)
income,
(3)
the
physical
costs
of
 migra)on,
(4)
informa)on,
(5)
personal
 characteris)cs,
(6)
individual
expecta)ons,
and
 (7)
community
and
kinship
)es.

 •  The
Distance
Model
states
that
long
distance
 discourages
migra)on
because
associated
costs
 are
related
to
distance.

 •  The
Income
Model
argues
that
income
and
job
 opportuni)es
provide
a
be_er
explana)on
of
in‐ migra)on
than
they
do
for
out‐migra)on

 20
 10 4/5/11 Theories
of
Migra)on

 •  Des)na)on
characteris)cs
also
help
determine
the
 loca)on
to
which
the
migrant
will
move

 •  The
Physical
Costs
Model
suggests
that
physical
costs
 influence
resource
alloca)on
and
migra)on
by
 influencing
the
private
costs
of
migra)on.
 •  The
Informa)on
Model
emphasizes
that
the
availability
 of
informa)on
concerning
alterna)ve
locali)es
plays
a
 prominent
role
in
the
poten)al
migrant’s
decision
 regarding
a
des)na)on.

 •  The
Personal
Characteris)cs
Model
argues
that
 personal
demographic
characteris)cs
(such
as
age,
 gender,
educa)on,
number
of
dependents,
networks,
 and
race)
exert
important
influences
on
the
individual’s
 decision
or
propensity
to
migrate.

 21
 Theories
of
Migra)on
 •  The
Individual
Expecta)ons
Model
assumes
that
the
 dynamics
of
migra)on
decision‐making
are
based
on
 individual
expecta)ons
about
the
advantages
and
 disadvantages
of
the
home
community
versus
possible
 alterna)ve
des)na)on
communi)es.

 •  The
Community
and
Kinship
Ties
Model
points
out
that
 the
presence
of
rela)ves
and
friends
encourages
 migra)on
by
increasing
the
individual’s
poten)al
for
 adjustment
through
the
availability
of
aid
in
loca)on
at
 an
alterna)ve
area
of
residence.



 •  All
these
theories
focus
mainly
on
individuals
and
why
 individuals
move
or
do
not
move.

 22
 11 4/5/11 Theories
of
Migra)on
 •  Demographers
have
developed
theories
that
 focus
on
popula)ons
and
their
geographic
areas.

 –  The
aggregate
theories
ask
why
do
some
areas
 increase
in
popula)on
size
through
migra)on,
why
do
 others
decrease
through
migra)on,
and
why
are
s)ll
 others
are
not
influenced
one
way
or
the
other
via
 migra)on.

 •  From
the
perspec)ve
of
human
ecology,
human
 popula)ons
redistribute
themselves
via
net
 migra)on
in
order
to
a_ain
an
equilibrium
 between
their
overall
size
and
the
life
chances
 available
to
them
 23
 Theories
of
Migra)on
 •  The
ecological
theory
of
migra)on
thus
focuses
 on
characteris)cs
of
the
popula)on
group
to
 predict
the
level
of
migra)on.
Individual
aqtudes
 and
propensi)es
do
not
play
a
role
in
such
 theories.
 •  Finally,
most
theories
of
internal
migra)on
from
 any
perspec)ve
have

been
influenced
in
one
way
 or
another
by
the
very
early
work
of
E.G.
 Ravenstein

 –  He
wrote
two
ar)cles
in
1885
and
1889
that
iden)fy
 the
so‐called
“laws”
of
migra)on;
these
s)ll
have
 merit
in
modern
studies
of
migra)on
 24
 12 4/5/11 Domes)c
Migra)on
in
the
U.S.
 Overall
Trends

 •  During
the
19th
and
early
20th
century
there
was
 a
steady
movement
westward.
 –  Between
1970
and
1978
the
western
region
of
the
 United
States
had
a
net
in‐migra)on
of
1.4
million
 people.

 •  The
Southern
region
had
long
been
an
exporter
 of
people
from
late
in
the
19th
century
un)l
well
 into
the
1960s.

 –  AYer
the
1970s
this
trend
was
reversed.

 •  At
the
broad
geographic
level,
the
pa_ern
is
one
 of
net
out‐migra)on
from
the
Northeast
and
the
 Midwest
and
net
in‐migra)on
to
the
South
and
 West.

 25
 Migra)on
Selec)vity
 •  Migra)on
is
very
selec)ve
on
the
basis
of
age,
 race,
sex,
and
socioeconomic
status.

 •  Young
adults
between
the
ages
of
20
and
29
 as
well
between
30
and
39
were
more
likely
to
 move
than
anyone
else.
 •  Mobility
differences
between
races
are
minor.

 –  Between
2004
and
2005,
about
14%
of
the
 popula)on
of
the
U.S.
moved.
Blacks
were
 somewhat
more
likely
to
move
locally
than
were
 whites.
 26
 13 4/5/11 Migra)on
Selec)vity
 •  Generally
the
greater
a
person’s
educa)on,
 the
more
likely
the
person
will
migrate,
 especially
long
distance
moves.

 •  Manual
workers
are
mobile,
but
tend
to
move
 locally.

 •  Farmers
are
the
least
mobile
occupa)onal
 group.

 •  People
not
in
the
labor
force
have
high
 mobility.

 27
 Consequences
of
Domes)c
Migra)on
 •  Migra)on
affects
the
area
of
origin
by
 reducing
its
poten)al
for
popula)on
growth.

 –  Persons
who
move
out
of
an
area
represent
 nega)ve
entries
in
the
demographic
equa)on
 –  And
those
who
move
out
of
an
area
tend
to
be
in
 the
young
childbearing
age
group,
which
reduces
 the
reproduc)ve
poten)al
of
the
popula)on
at
 origin.
 •  Massive
in‐migra)on
can
put
a
severe
strain
 on
the
receiving
area
to
deliver
services
to
its
 residents.


 28
 14 4/5/11 Consequences
of
Domes)c
Migra)on
 •  In‐migra)on
affects
the
size
of
the
labor
force
 in
two
ways.

 –  In‐migra)on
may
increase
the
ra)o
of
the
 economically
ac)ve
persons
to
the
total
persons.
 –  In‐migrants
may
have
higher
rates
of
labor
force
 par)cipa)on
than
the
receiving
popula)on.
 •  Sudden
influxes
of
migrants
to
a
certain
area
 can
affect
the
migrants
and
the
receiving
 community,
especially
if
the
two
groups
differ
 culturally
or
linguis)cally.

 29
 Impact
on
the
Individual
Migrant
 •  Migrants
may
choose
to
migrate
to
live
in
an
 environment
with
the
social,
economic,
poli)cal,
or
 physical
characteris)cs
that
they
prefer.

 •  In
general,
the
difficulty
that
migrants
experience
in
 being
acculturated
depends
on
how
different
they
are
 from
the
receiving
popula)on.

 •  Nonwhite
versus
white
acceptance
in
mainstream
 American
life
is
very
different.
Blacks
have
a
history
of
 non‐acceptance
that
persists
today.
It
is
likely
that
 rela)vely
recent
Asian
and
Hispanic
migrants
have
and
 will
con)nue
to
have
similar
difficul)es.


 •  Urban
to
rural
migrants
as
well
as
migrants
between
 regions
also
have
to
make
adapta)ons.

 30
 15 4/5/11 “Floa)ng”
Migra)on
in
China
 •  In
China
thus
there
are
two
kinds
of
internal
migra)on:
 a
move
noted
by
an
officially
permi_ed
permanent
 change
in
the
person’s
place
of
household
registra)on;
 and
a
move
with
no
such
official
sanc)on

 •  Persons
in
China
who
move
without
permission
are
 known
as
“floaters.”

 •  The
agricultural
labor
surplus
ends
up
migra)ng
to
the
 ci)es
for
jobs
in
construc)on,
manufacturing
and
 household
services.

 •  There
are
as
many
as
140
floa)ng
migrants
in
China
 –  They
are
mainly
young
unmarried
male
and
females
with
 moderate
levels
of
educa)on





 –  Some
of
these
migrants
may
well
try
to
come
to
the
U.S.
if
 work
is
unavailable
in
China
 31
 Migra)on
Streams
in
the
U.S.

 •  In
the
five
years
between
1995
and
2000,
 there
were
over
22
million
inter‐state
migrants
 in
the
U.S.

 •  The
largest
state‐to‐state
migra)on
stream
in
 the
U.S.
was
from
New
York
to
Florida
with
 over
300
thousand
migrants.
The
next
largest
 was
from
New
York
to
New
Jersey.

 •  The
largest
migra)on
flows
into
a
state
and
 out
of
a
state
originate
and
terminate
in
close
 by
or
adjacent
states.

 32
 16 4/5/11 Migra)on
Streams
to
China
 •  The
temporary
migra)on
stream
in
China
is
 similar
to
the
country’s
permanent
migra)on
 stream
 –  However,
it
is
much
larger!

 –  Considering
only
the
ten
largest
migra)on
 streams,
the
floa)ng
migrant
streams
are
on
 average
14
)mes
larger
than
the
permanent
 migrant
streams.

 –  Considering
all
the
inter‐provincial
temporary
 migrants
in
China
between
1995
and
2000,
the
 number
of
over
42
million
floa)ng
migrants
is
13
 )mes
larger
than
the
total
number
of
permanent
 33
 migrants.

 17 ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/13/2011 for the course SOCL 4701 taught by Professor Sana during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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