Ch_3_Hellenistic_outline (1) - The Rise of Macedonia and...

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The Rise of Macedonia and the Conquests of Alexander A. Macedonia a backwater of rural tribes and were considered to be “barbarians” by southerners 1. Philip II (359-336 B.C.E.) “The Barbarian” made Macedonia strongest power in Greek world a. Defeated southern Greeks at Battle of Chaeronea, 338 B.C.E. b. Organized Greeks into the Corinthian League to support invasion of Persia B. Alexander the Great (336-323 B.C.E.): twenty years old when came to throne 1. Alexander’s Conquests a. Invade Persian Empire in 334 B.C.E. with 37,000 soldiers b. Defeated Darius III at Battles of Granicus River and Isssus c. Captured Syria, Palestine, and Egypt d. Won Battle of Gaugamela and seized Persian capitals of Susa and Persepolis e. Alexander took title of Great King of the Persians f. Entered India in 327 B.C.E., but in 326 his soldiers refused to continue g. Alexander died in Babylon in 323, age thirty-two 2. The Legacy of Alexander: An idealistic visionary or a ruthless Machiavellian? a. Created a new age, the Hellenistic (“to imitate Greeks”) era i. Extended Greek language and ideas to the non-Greek world ii. Greek language, art, and literature spread throughout the Middle East 3. Cities became centers of diffusion of Greek culture a. Hellenistic era saw a clash and fusion of Greek and non-Greek (e.g. Persian)
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