Chapter_5_Rome - 1 Rome(outline Geography of the City of...

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Rome (outline) Geography of the City of Rome Peninsula in the Mediterranean Sea [“center of the Earth”] Mountains not as rough as in Greece, communities not totally isolated Slightly inland, protected by “seven hills” Central location, on useful river (Tiber) Origins of Rome Mythical founding [Aeneas; Rhea Sylvia; Romulus and Remus; Brutus and Lucretia] Rule of the Etruscans Rex Fasces Toga Alphabet “Games” Roman Republic, 509 b.c. to 5 th century a.d.: The “Thousand Year Reich” <SPACER TYPE="HORIZONTAL" SIZE="72"></SPACER> The Roman Conquest of Italy By c. 300 b.c. Rome rules local tribes (Latium and the Samnites) Conquest of Greek city-states in south of Italy by c. 260s b.c. Roman Confederation Gave Roman citizenship to some non-Romans Non-Romans were free to run own local affairs but provided soldiers Rule by mixture of diplomacy and force Roman political arrangements: an Aristocratic Republic Consuls (executive) Senate (300 elders; advised executive) Assemblies (could pass laws) “Struggle of the Orders” Patricians (could vote and hold office) Plebians (could only vote) By c. 280 b.c., all citizens equal – but patricians and rich plebians were more equal that others The Roman Conquest of the Mediterranean (264–133 B.C.E.) First Punic War (264-241): Rome wins Sicily Second Punic War (217-202): Hannibal invades; Battle of Zama in 202 Third Punic War (150-146): “Carthage must be destroyed” Conquest of Eastern Mediterranean [“Mare Nostrum,” our sea] Greek states, Macedonia Persia 1
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Roman Imperialism Originally, no plan of conquest By late Republic, colonies were a source of glory, wealth, and slaves NOTE THE OVERLAY OF EMPIRES, FROM SARGON AND FROM EGYPT, ETC ETC, TO PERSIA, WHICH FELL TO ALEXANDER, TO THE HELLENISTIC EMPIRES WHICH FELL ONE BY ONE TO … ROME AND FROM THERE, LOOK FORWARD TO BYZANTIUM. AND THEN SOMETHING DIFFERENT: THE RISE OF THE WEST AFTER 1492 “Roman Revolution” (133 to 31 b.c.) Gracchus brothers (Gaius and Tiberius) attempt land reform Failure of reform Army takes over the struggle Marius and the new army: landless men, loyal only to their general Sulla’s reign of terror, 82 b.c. Triumverate Pompey, Crassus, Julius Caesar, 60 b.c. Caesar crosses the Rubicon from Gaul in 49, officially became dictator in 47 Caesar’s reforms Calendar Land redistribution Weakens the senate by adding 600 more members Assassinated in 44 b.c. Octavian Caesar defeated Antony and Cleopatra at Battle of Actium, 31 b.c.
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Chapter_5_Rome - 1 Rome(outline Geography of the City of...

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