RRES_150_Slides_Part_4 - Plant Science (RRES 150) Plant...

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Plant Science (RRES 150) Plant Science (RRES 150) PART IV PART IV
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Sexual Propagation Sexual Propagation Advantages: 1) produces large numbers in a short period of time 2) can handle large numbers easily 3) produces hybrids Disadvantages: 1) some plants produce no viable seeds 2) some seeds are very difficult or slow to germinate 3) causes genetic variability (e.g. due to production of hybrids) Page 81 Page 81
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Asexual or Vegetative Propagation Asexual or Vegetative Propagation Advantages: 1) All off-spring are true-to-type (identical to the parent) and produce a clone . 2) for plants that are hard or impossible to propagate from seeds 3) decrease time to flowering (esp. grafting & budding); by- passes juvenile phase Disadvantages: 1) can only propagate a few from each parent (except tissue culture). 2) requires a lot of labor totipotency - the concept that every cell in a plant has the inherent genetic ability to reproduce the entire plant. clone - a group of plants, cultivar or variety derived from the same parent plant by asexual (vegetative) propagation. Page 81 Page 81
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Tissue Culture Tissue Culture An asexual propagation technique where small pieces of excised tissue or individual cells are placed in sterile in vitro culture containing all the nutrients, carbohydrates and hormones needed for growth. The tissue grows rapidly and can be induced to produce large numbers of new plants. Hormones are used to cause the tissue to grow into callus masses, roots or shoots. Sometimes called micropropagation. Page 81 Page 81
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Sexual Propagation Sexual Propagation pollination - deposition of pollen on the stigma of the pistil. Human chromosomes Insect Pollination haploid 1N 1 of each chromosome diploid 2N 2 of each chromosome triploid 3N 3 of each chromosome tetraploid 4N 4 of each chromosome ploidy - the number of sets of chromosomes present in the nucleus of the cell. Page 82 Page 82
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Sexual Propagation (continued) Sexual Propagation (continued) Normally, the regular cells of the plant (called vegetative cells) are 2N, and the reproductive cells (called the gametes) are 1N. gamete - a haploid (1N) reproductive cell. the male gamete is the sperm cell with its 1N nucleus the female gamete is the egg cell with its 1N nucleus. fertilization - the union of one male gamete (1N sperm nucleus) and one female gamete (1N egg nucleus) to produce a zygote (2N). Diploid Parents Haploid Gametes Diploid Zygote Page 82 Page 82
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Pollen and Ovule Formation in higher plants Graphics from Otto and Towle: Modern Biology (1997)
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Double Fertilization Fertilization union of one male gamete (1N) with one female gamete (1N) to produce a zygote (2N), plus the union of one male gamete (1N) with two polar nuclei (1N each) to produce an endosperm (3N); occurs in higher plants only (angiosperms). Page 83
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This note was uploaded on 05/13/2011 for the course RRES 150 taught by Professor N/a during the Spring '11 term at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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RRES_150_Slides_Part_4 - Plant Science (RRES 150) Plant...

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