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Geol. 105 Notes 3

Geol. 105 Notes 3 - collisions(Gujarat India Shaanxi...

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-abundance of elements on Earth’s crust -radius of Earth-6371 km, outer core is molten, inner core is solid, D” layer is between outer core and lower mantel (could be where hot spots come from), upper mantel divided into 3 main layers (one at 650 km, one at 440 km, crust) -rock cycle: sediments-sedimentary rocks-metamorphic rocks-magma-igneous rocks-sediments -classification of rocks: -sedimentary rocks (classic, chemical, biologic)-sediments compressed together (conglomerate, sandstone, etc.) -metamorphic rocks (foliated, non-foliated)-sedimentary rocks pressed down into mantel, heated, change structure -igneous rocks (intrusive, extrusive)-formed from magma that comes out of volcanoes and cools -tectonic geology of eastern North America: NC was locus of major volcanism; Chapel Hill built on plutons (frozen magma chambers) that are 600 million years old -plate tectonics and earthquakes: -spreading centers and earthquakes-Iceland, Red Sea and Gulf of Aden -convergent zones and earthquakes-subduction zones (Tokyo 1923), continent/continent
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Unformatted text preview: collisions (Gujarat, India; Shaanxi Province, China; Tangshan, China)-transform faults and earthquakes-Turkey 1999, Dead Sea Fault Zone, San Andreas Fault Zone, Alpine Fault Zone-earthquake-disturbance in Earth that propagates seismic waves, occur where stress builds up and catastrophically releases large amounts of energy; occur mainly at plate boundaries but have also occurred in interiors of plates-types of faults: dip-slip, strike-slip, transform-dip/slip- vertical movement of blocks relative to each other-strike/slip-adjacent blocks translate horizontally past one another (right/dextral [pull apart at bend] or left/sinistral [come together at bend] lateral)-rupture area-part of surface of fault that actually breaks-hypocenter-where the rupture originates-epicenter-point on surface that corresponds to hypocenter-thrust fault-reverse fault-normal fault-two blocks moving away from each other/diverge...
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