Astr. 101 Notes 9

Astr. 101 Notes 9 - -the outer solar system(Jupiter Saturn...

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-the outer solar system (Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, Uranus, Kuiper Belt): -Jupiter vs. Saturn: Jupiter and Saturn about same size, but Jupiter is much more dense and massive, due to its gravity being much stronger than Saturn’s; belts and zones on both planets show circulation patterns like the convection cells on Earth, but with much faster winds (belts are dark colored, zones are light colored) -solid vs. differential rotation: solid rotation (terrestrial planets; every part of object takes exactly same time to complete one rotation), differential rotation (Jupiter and Saturn; particles at different locations in the fluid take different lengths of time to complete one rotation) -Jupiter’s changing atmosphere: the Great Red Spot is larger than Earth, rotates counter clockwise with a 6 day period, and has been observed for over 300 years (on the Earth, such a storm would dissipate when it hit a land mass); Cassini images indicate that Jupiter’s weather patterns appear to be quite regular and stable -Saturn’s storms: shorter lived than Jupiter -Jupiter’s bands and zones: brown belts (warmer, seeing deeper into the atmosphere), white zones (cooler, crystals of various ices), red spots (highest altitudes in the atmosphere) -Galileo atmosphere probe in Jupiter: the probe revealed 650 km/hr constant winds; H and He content very similar to that of the Sun but more C, N, and S and the noble gases than the solar proportion; these observations challenge our model for solar system formation ; Earth weather is powered by solar heating on the ground, while Jovian planet weather is powered by internal heat (however, Saturn is giving off proportionally more IR that Jupiter despite its smaller size and increased distance from the Sun; helium settling out of Saturn’s atmosphere is giving Saturn more internal energy through chemical differentiation -oblate shape from rotation: higher speed rotation in equatorial zone leads to equatorial bulge (this is due to Newton’s First Law, not centrifugal force -internal structure: model of Jupiter’s and Saturn’s internal structure, particularly the rocky core and surrounding liquid “ices” must predict Jupiter’s 6.4% and Saturn’s 9.8% oblateness; Jupiter’s rocky core has about eight times Earth’s mass compressed to less than Earth’s radius; the oblateness is very sensitive
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This note was uploaded on 05/13/2011 for the course ASTR 101 taught by Professor Christiansen during the Spring '08 term at UNC.

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Astr. 101 Notes 9 - -the outer solar system(Jupiter Saturn...

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