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Unformatted text preview: - kings, popes, and crusades (high politics in the high Middle Ages):-Catholic Church and pope are now most powerful force in Europe; leads to conflicts between Church and state governments-crusades: expression of devotion to Christianity; fueled by political motivations of Church and kings t rying to increase their power in Europe-the rise of centralized states (England): kings develop courts of law (slowly displace courts of lords as power becomes more centralized), collect taxes (a large bureaucracy is necessary for this, with bureaucrats responding to kings, not local lords); most powerful and centralized monarchy in Europe is in England, after Normans of France under William the Conqueror defeat the Saxons in England and establish a dynasty of Norman Kings (under Henry I and Henry I I kings given more control over government and lords, send out their own royal agents called sheriffs who administer law in units called counties; kings also send out judges to run courts, giving kings control over judicial system; common law, or law that is based on precedent and is altered and added to over time, is established by kings; kings attempt to gain control over Church in their realm so that they can have more power [example is that Henry I I required that clergy obey his laws, and sent them to courts if they...
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