Geog. 110 Notes 11

Geog. 110 Notes 11 - -Earths interior-lithosphere or...

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- Earth’s interior : -lithosphere or crust-oceanic (5 km thick), continental (5-60 km thick) -mantle-2900 km thick (asthenosphere is about 700 degrees C, ductile; upper mantle; lower mantle is about 3000 to 4000 degrees C; why don’t rocks melt? as rocks get closer to the center of the Earth, their compositions change so that the heavier minerals nearest the core have much higher melting points than the lighter minerals nearer the surface) -core-outer (flowing liquid iron creates dynamo to power Earth’s magnetic field), inner (solid nickel/ iron) -the crust and asthenosphere (some details): mountain ranges have roots that extend down into the asthenosphere; crust basically floats on the ductile asthenosphere -how do we determine the internal structure of the Earth?: earthquake waves (body waves include P waves [longitudinal, parallel to direction of motion, are refracted when they pass through differing substances] and S waves [traverse, perpendicular to direction of motion, do not pass through liquid]) -plate tectonics-lithosphere is broken into rigid pieces that move with respect to one another throughout the course of Earth’s history -plate movements: driven by convection currents in the mantle; three possible interactions between plates include divergence (material is created), convergence (material is consumed), transform
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Geog. 110 Notes 11 - -Earths interior-lithosphere or...

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