Geog. 111 Notes 3

Geog. 111 Notes 3 - -energy heat and temperature-energy is...

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- energy, heat, and temperature: -energy is the ability/capacity to work on something (energy in atmosphere is called radiant energy, energy in the form of waves); temperature relates to the molecular motion of molecules in the air (as mean molecular motion changes, the amount of heat being transferred changes); heat is simply the flow of energy -flows of radiant energy: from Sun to top of atmosphere to Earth’s surface (conversion; this represents energy budget/ balance) -electromagnetic spectrum: forms of radiant energy (from gamma, which has the shortest wavelengths, to visible, what we see, to radio, which has the longest wavelengths); Sun radiates in shortwave spectrum (high intensity), while Earth radiates in longwave spectrum (low intensity, relatively) -how is radiation related to temperature?: Stefan Boltzman Law (the amount of energy radiated is proportional to the fourth power of temp. of radiating body), Wein’s Law (the wavelength of max. emission decreases as the temp. of a radiating body increases); blues are shorter wavelengths, reds are longer wavelengths (concerning the visible spectrum); blackbody is absorber that emits every wavelength (however, most physical objects are selective absorbers/ emitters, not blackbodies); absorption gaps reveal where gases like water vapor, CO2, O2 absorb radiation -discerning atmospheric moisture from infrared satellite images: water vapor in the mid levels of the atmosphere absorbs a good portion of longwave radiation; therefore, satellites in this range will be able to “see” how much water vapor is in the atmosphere -discerning cloud heights from infrared satellite images: temperatures gradually decrease w/ increasing height above the Earth; therefore higher clouds are colder than lower clouds and the Earth -Earth/ atmosphere influences on radiation: which processes are important? (absorption, reflection, scattering) -absorption-occurs when a body assimilates or absorbs incoming radiation; the temperature warms as a result (examples of absorption in atmosphere include ozone, clouds, CO2, water vapor) -reflection-incoming solar radiation hits a surface and bounces off surface at same angle at which it came in; albedo measures the reflectivity of a surface (albedo=[outgoing
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This note was uploaded on 05/13/2011 for the course GEOG 111 taught by Professor Konrad,c during the Fall '07 term at UNC.

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Geog. 111 Notes 3 - -energy heat and temperature-energy is...

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