Psyc. 101 Notes 2

Psyc. 101 Notes 2 - -research methods: -a way of knowing-t...

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- research methods: -a way of knowing-transition from philosophy to science, knowledge versus belief, evidence versus reason/ common sense -scientific approach to behavior-basic assumption is that events are governed by some lawful order; goals: measurement and description, understanding and prediction, application and control -what scientific research is: scientific findings are verifiable, public, cumulative -what scientific research is not: forever valid (no, scientists are the products of their times), always conducted the same way (no, process must fit situation), perfectly objective (no, scientists are influenced by human values) -scientific method-idea, hypothesis, test of hypothesis, analysis, conclusions, publish -research methods in psychology-describe (naturalistic observation, case studies), compare (tests, questionnaires, surveys), determine causes (experiments), evaluating and interpreting research data (representative samples, statistical analysis) -descriptive methods-used when researcher cannot manipulate the variables under study (naturalistic observation, case studies, surveys), allow researchers to describe patterns of behavior and discover links or associations b/w variables but cannot imply causation -correlational method-correlation is the degree to which events and characteristics vary from each other (measures strength and direction of relationship, does not imply cause and effect), the people chosen for a study are its subjects or participants (collectively called a sample, the sample must be representative); correlational data can be graphed and a “line of best fit” can be drawn (unrelated=no line of best fit); the magnitude of a correlation is also important (high magnitude=variables which vary closely together and fall close to line of best fit; low magnitude=not so much) -experiments-an experiment is manipulation of one variable under controlled conditions so that resulting changes in another variable can be observed (detection of cause and effect relationships); independent variable is variable manipulated, dependent variable
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This note was uploaded on 05/13/2011 for the course PSYC 101 taught by Professor Loeb during the Spring '08 term at UNC.

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Psyc. 101 Notes 2 - -research methods: -a way of knowing-t...

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