01 Intro part 2 - b. Linnaean hierarchy from broad to...

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Introduction to Biology part 2 VIII.Theme 2: Unity and Diversity A. Unity 1. All living things are composed of cells (part of cell theory) 2. All living things use the same hereditary material (DNA) 3. All living things have similar biochemistry a. Phosopholipid membranes b. Use ATP to transfer energy c. Use enzymes to facilitate reactions; enzymes remarkably similar across groups d. All proteins are constructed from the same 20 amino acids 4. Result: whole organisms have many similarities, and can be grouped hierarchically B. Diversity 1. Small differences within a species allow at least some individuals to reproduce as conditions change a. Natural selection alters the common characteristics of a species over generations 2. Larger differences between species determine their distribution 3. Species can be placed into groups based on their degree of similarity 4. Karl von Linne’ (Carolus Linnaeus in Latin) proposed a nested hierarchical structure of classification, ending in a binomial (literally, two names), in the 1730’s a. The binomial (genus and species) is unique within a kingdom
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Unformatted text preview: b. Linnaean hierarchy from broad to narrow: (1) Domain (added recently) (2) Kingdom (3) Phylum (Division in plants and fungi) (4) Class (5) Order (6) Family (7) Genus (8) Species 5. Three domains a. Bacteria – prokaryotic; the “common” bacteria b. Archaea – prokaryotic; often found in extreme environments c. Eukarya – eukaryotic; protists, fungi, animals and plants all belong here IX. Theme 3: Biological Systems A. The hierarchical nature of biological systems allows us to thoroughly examine small parts (i.e., cells, organelles) 1. If we understand the parts, what about the whole organism? 2. Emergent properties? 3. How do parts affect each other? B. Feedback Control 1. Negative feedback: abundance of a product suppresses its further production a. Very common in endocrine and nervous systems 2. Positive feedback: presence of a chemical product stimulates further production a. Uncommon in biological systems...
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This note was uploaded on 05/15/2011 for the course BIO 120 taught by Professor Throgerson during the Fall '08 term at Grand Valley State.

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