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04 Basic Biochemistry

04 Basic Biochemistry - Basic Organic Chemistry I Organic...

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Basic Organic Chemistry I. Organic compounds contain a carbon backbone A. They are constructed of monomers linked together into polymers B. Polymer construction involves dehydration synthesis; disassembling involves hydrolysis C. 4 basic classes: 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic acids II. Functional Groups A. Hydroxyl 1. Tends to be mildly acidic (donates H+) and polar 2. Found in alcohols B. Carbonyl 1. Provides a site for hydrogen bonding (polar) 2. Aldehydes and ketones are structural isomers C. Carboxyl 1. Organic (carboxylic) acids have this at the end of a chain 2. Highly polar 3. Easily forms bonds with other molecules D. Amine 1. Tends to be basic 2. Attracts H + from solution, becoming positive; highly polar 3. Amino acids have both amine and carboxyl groups E. Sulfhydryl 1. Resembles a hydroxyl, but can donate H + 2. Found in thiols; disulfide bond (between methionines) stabilizes protein structure F. Phosphate 1. Highly polar; basic (attracts H + ) 2. Important in phospholipids and nucleic acids 3. Can stack to form high-energy di- and triphosphates
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04 Basic Biochemistry - Basic Organic Chemistry I Organic...

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